Week 4 Flashcards Preview

121 weeks 1-5 > Week 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 4 Deck (20):

What three things must occur for micturition to occur?

1. detrusor must contract 2. internal urethral sphincter must open. 3. external urethral sphincter must open.


What two centers control micturition?

1. Pontine storage center inhibits micturition. 2. Pontine micturition center promotes relfex.


What is urinary incontinence?

weakened floor muscles. childbirth, surgery, nervous system problems


A kidney stone blocking a ureter would interfere with urine flow yo which organ and why wpuld the pain occur in waves?

The bladder. Pain occurs due to paristaltic waves of ureter putting pressure on stone stuck.


Alcohol is a diuretic. What does this mean? What effect does alcohol have on ADH?

Alcohol inhibits pituitary secretion of ADH which controls kidneys ability to reabsorb water. ADH levels drop which causes the kidneys to produce more urine which causes more voiding.


What is the function of kidneys?

1. remove metabolic waste 2. regulate water and salt loss from body 3. maintain pH of blood 4. produce hormones to regulate bp 5. filter blood 6. produce erythropoietins


the primary function of the urinary bladder is..

to store urine recieved from ureters


Describe the gross anatomy of the bladder

smooth muscle organ. contains ruggae. round in shape with a funnel at the base.


What is the problem associated with an enlarged prostate gland?

difficulties with micturition due to compression against the urethra


What is a nephron?

the functional unit of the kidney which creates urine through filtration, reabsorption, secretion and concentration


How many neurons are there in a kidney?

over a million


urine is the result of what?

filtrate from blood through the nephron


The renal corpuscle is responsible for the filtration of filtrate. Filtrate contains what?

*urea *uric acid *creatinine *water *sodium *potassium *phosphate *sulfate ions *calcium *magnesium *bicarbonate ions


What is the function of the PCT?

nutrient reabsorption


what is the function of the loop of henle?

reabsorbs water in descending loop. salt reabsorption in ascending loop


what is diuresis?

excessive production of urine.


What is ADH? Where is it produced?

Anti diuretic hormone produced in the posterior pitituary gland. Prevents dehydration and stabilises the balance of water. Decreases urine production.


Define filtration..

separation of solids from liquids


What evidence may a urine test show?

UTI or kidney disease


What is albumin? Is it usually found in urine? What does its presence suggest?

smallest protein in body. not normally found in urine. its presence suggests diseased or damaged nephrons