Week 5: Phonology II - Beyond Phonemes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 5: Phonology II - Beyond Phonemes Deck (18)
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1

What are contrastive phonemes?

Phonemes that when swapped for one another change the meaning of a word in that language e.g. /p/ and /b/ in 'pet' and 'bet'

2

What is a minimal pair?

A word is a minimal pair if it's exactly the same apart from one difference in either:
- Place of articulation
- Manner of articulation
- Voicing

3

What do minimal pairs provide evidence for?

They provide evidence for phonemic contrasts within a language

4

Define: PHONEMES

The consonants and vowels used within a language

5

Define: PHONOLOGY

The study of how sounds are organised/distributed in a language

6

How do we know if a sound is a phoneme of a language or not?

If it's distinctive/contrastive in that language

7

Define: ALLOPHONES

The ways that phonemes are realised within a language i.e different kinds of certain phonemes

8

Example: ALLOPHONES

Butter:
- in formal speech: /bʌtə/
- in less formal speech: /bʌʔə/

9

Name: THREE REASONS FOR ALLOPHONIC VARIATION

- Speaker differences e.g. English/American speaking
- Speaker contexts e.g. formal/informal, fast/slow
- Position of phoneme within a word e.g. onset, next to vowel

10

Define: COMPLEMENTARY DISTRIBUTION

Where particular allophones are restricted to a particular phonological environment

11

Example: COMPLEMENTARY DISTRIBUTION

/n/:
- [n̪] before a dental fricative /ð/
- [nː] before a voiced plosive/fricative
- [n] everywhere else
Only one can occur in one place

12

How do we write ALLOPHONES?

Using brackets: [ ]

13

Why are allophones written using brackets [ ]?

Because they represent phonetic production in real speech – they provide a narrow transcription of the way a word or sound is produced

14

Define: FREE VARIATION

Refers to different pronunciations of words that don't change their meaning

15

Example: FREE VARIATION

Economics can be pronounced:
- with an /i:/ at the beginning
OR
- with an /ɛ/ at the beginning

16

What are the two types of FREE VARIATION?

- At the phoneme level
- At the word level

17

Define: FREE VARIATION AT THE PHONEME LEVEL

The variation can occur in any word i.e. not word-dependent
e.g. [ð] ~ [v]

18

Define: FREE VARIATION AT THE WORD LEVEL

The variation is dependent on the word
e.g. the /i:/ allophonic variation in 'economics' couldn't be transferred to 'echo'