Week 9: Semantics I&II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 9: Semantics I&II Deck (29)
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1

Define: SEMANTICS

How meaning is expressed and understood within a language

2

Define: SEMIOTICS

The study of signs

3

Define: INDICES

Signs that are connected to their meaning by way of 'pointing' e.g. smoke 'points' to fire

4

Define: ICONS

Signs that represent or are a picture of their meaning e.g. the male and female icons on toilet doors

5

Define: SYMBOLS

Signs that are connected to their meaning by convention e.g. musical notes

6

Define: PRINCIPLE OF COMPOSITIONALITY

Combining signs to make more complex meanings

7

Define: PRINCIPLE OF CONTRASTS

Relates to the limits of variation within a sign that ensure the maintenance of meaning e.g. can have different shades of green in traffic lights but not blue

8

Define: REFERENCE

The 'thing' that is picked out from all the objects in the world when using a word/expression

9

Define: DENOTATION

All the objects in the world that could potentially be referred to using a word/expression

10

Define: SENSE

An expression is linked by convention to an idea/sense

11

Define: PROBLEM OF CIRCULARITY

Explaining one word by using another word, and then explaining the other word by using the first word

12

Name: THE THREE ASPECTS OF MEANING

- Reference
- Denotation
- Sense

13

Define: REFERENT

The 'thing' in the world being referred to

14

Define: DENOTATUM

The 'thing' in the world being denoted to

15

Define: SEMANTIC RELATIONS

How meanings of different words relate to each other

16

Define: POLYSEMY

A word that has multiple, but related meanings

17

Define: HOMOGRAPHY

A word that shares the same orthographic form as another, but has a different meaning e.g. 'to present' and 'a present'

18

Define: HOMOPHONY

A word that is pronounced the same (to varying extent) as another word, but differs in meaning

19

Define: SYNONYMY

When two or more linguistic forms are used to substitute one another in any context in which their common meaning is not affected

20

Define: ANTONYMY

The sense relation in words which are opposite in meaning

21

Define: MERONYMY

The semantic relation that holds between a part and a whole

22

Define: HYPONOYMY

Words of more specific meanings that have subordinate words under them e.g. 'fruit' is a hypernym of 'apple'

23

Define: HYPERONYMY

Words of more general subordinate meanings that lie under superordinate terms e.g. 'apple' is a hyponym of 'fruit'

24

The THREE types of antonymy

- Gradable
- Complementary
- Incompatible

25

Define: HOMONYMY

When two words are spelled and pronounced the same but have different meanings

26

How do you tell between polysemy and homonymy?

- If there are two lexemes, it's homonymy
- If the meanings are not related, it's homonymy
& vice versa

27

Define: GRADABLE ANTONYMY

A pair of words with opposite meanings where the two meanings lie on a continuous spectrum e.g. big & small

28

Define: COMPLEMENTARY ANTONYMY

A pair of words with opposite meanings where if it is one, it cannot be the other one e.g. dead & alive

29

Define: INCOMPATIBLE ANTONYMY

A pair of words with opposite meanings where as soon as it's one, it cannot be the other, but it is not necessarily the other e.g. if it's not yellow, it could be green, but it doesn't mean it is definitely green