Flashcards in Weeks 3&4: Phonetics II Deck (16)
What is the IPA?
A universally-agreed way of recording spoken language that provides 'co-ordinates' of the vocal tract
Why do we need the IPA, why not use the alphabet?
There's a mismatch between alphabet letters and sounds e.g. some alphabet letters can have multiple sounds - 'ph' or 'f'?
How do we describe CONSONANTS?
Voicing + Place + Manner e.g. voiceless bilabial plosive
How do we describe VOWELS?
- Vowel/tongue height
- Tongue backness
What is VOWEL/TONGUE HEIGHT?
How high the tongue is towards the palate (roof of the mouth) when the vowel is produced
What is TONGUE BACKNESS?
Relates to what part of the tongue is raised
What is ROUNDING?
Relates to whether the lips are rounded or not
How is VOWEL/TONGUE HEIGHT described?
- Close vowel (high)
- Close-mid vowel (mid-high)
- Open vowel (low)
How is TONGUE BACKNESS described?
- Front vowel e.g. [i] in 'she'
- Back vowel e.g. [u] in 'shoe'
What are CARDINAL VOWELS?
A set of vowel prototypes to help easier classify and define vowels
What does the Y axis refer to on the Cardinal Vowel Triangle?
What does the X axis refer to on the Cardinal Vowel Triangle?
A combination of two vowels in a syllable
A combination of three vowels in a syllable