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Flashcards in Week 6 Deck (19):
1

What do cross-sectional studies look at?

prevalence

2

What is the limitation of cross-sectional studies?

can't tell whether exposure preceded disease

3

What type of study starts with an exposure/risk factor and follows group over time to determine outcomes?

cohort studies

4

Cohort studies are used for assessing what 3 things?

-- risk
-- harm
-- adverse events

5

Of the 2 types of cohort studies, which is the expensive one?

prospective = expensive

retrospective = cheaper

6

Which type of cohort study follows an interest with/without risk factor forward in time to record outcome?

prospective

7

Which type of cohort study is followed backward in time to examine risk factors present years in the past?

retrospective

8

What type of study looks at the difference between groups with the disease/condition and one group without?

case-control studies

9

T/F:
-- Case-control studies can asses the risk of outcome?

false, the outcome is already known

10

T/F:
-- Case-control studies are useful for assessing rare conditions?

true, ie association between stroke and CMT

11

What type of study is an evaluation of the quality of the literature?

systematic reviews

12

What is the difference between a narrative review and a systematic review?

-- systematic reviews assess literature and give it a quality

-- narrative reviews look at literature and print it (don't give quality)

13

What does a likelihood ratio of 2-5 mean?

2-5 = small but sometimes important

14

What does a likelihood ratio of 5-10 mean?

5-10 = moderate & usually important

15

What does a likelihood ratio of 10+ mean?

Usually conclusive

16

Does SPECIFICITY or SENSITIVITY rule something in?

SpPin = Specificity + rules in

17

Does SPECIFICITY or SENSITIVITY rule something out?

SnNout = Sensitivity - rules out

18

What type of error is the rejection of a true null hypothesis (also known as a "false positive" finding)?

A type I error

19

What type error is retaining a false null hypothesis (also known as a "false negative" finding)?

Type 2 error