Week 6: Inequality in Employment and Schools Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 6: Inequality in Employment and Schools Deck (16):

Economic Inequality:
Income Inequality

- employment discrimination
- minimum wage has not followed inflation
- wages have not followed productivity
- concentration of economic growth (1%)


Economic Inequality:
Wealth Inequality

- historical employment discrimination
- housing discrimination
- lower income, less savings, less investment
- most wealth is inherited


Gini Coefficient

- measuring economic inequality
- low coefficient means more equality

0 = complete equality
1 = complete inequality


Why is economic inequality a problem?

Economic inequality...
- hurts productivity
- diminishes social mobility
- threatens democracy

Economic inequality relates to education inequality
- poor families have less access to school
- schools in poorer areas receive less funding
- opportunities presented to poor students are limited


Discrimination in Employment

- history of open discrimination
- current discrimination with a smile
- minorities get less calls back, and told jobs are not available, and are treated differently


Discrimination in Employment: 3 Theories
- Gary Becker

Some people have a "taste for discrimination."


Discrimination in Employment: 3 Theories
- Split Labor Market

Employers are pressured by white laborers.


Discrimination in Employment: 3 Theories
- Marxist

Employers gain from divided and weaker labor.


The Tax System

- tax as a tool of income distribution
- the top 1% is taxed at lower rates than middle class
- city services depend on revenue from taxes
- areas with the greatest need have the lowest revenues
- cuts in services and lower quality services


Discrimination in Schools: Functionalist

Is education a path toward social mobility and reduced inequality or does it reflect and reproduce inequality?

Education provides everyone an opportunity for social mobility; results depend on one's ability and effort.


Discrimination in Schools: Conflict

Is education a path toward social mobility and reduced inequality or does it reflect and reproduce inequality?

Change in economic system is more important than education; true purpose of education is to channel students to certain roles.


School Segregation: Why are schools still segregated?

De jure v. de facto segregation

- housing segregation
- courts' reduced on desegregation
- reduced popular concern about school segregation


School Segregation: Why is it a problem?
1. Predominantly minority schools receive less funding.

Funding related to municipal revenue
- inequities between school districts
State matching efforts
- reduce inequities between school districts
Inequities within school districts
- less money allocated to minority schools

The Coleman Report (1966)

Funding is important
- funding: e.g., class size, teacher quality, facilities, programs, explained only a small part of lower performance

Students' background and attitudes are dysfunctional: functionalist perspective
- students' background: e.g., family size, parents' education and interest, facilities at home

The educational system is dysfunctional: conflict perspective
- students' attitudes: interest in learning, self-concept, sense of control


School Segregation: Why is it a problem?
2. Cultural and behavioral factors affect minorities.

Culture Deprivation (Coleman Report)
- underachieving students have poor self-image, are uninterested in school, lack sense of control of their environment
- solution: change attitudes, teach better learning habits, integrate schools

Culture Bias
- schools punish those who do not conform
- biased school material damage self-image
- teacher's expectations
- tracking or ability grouping
- opposition to bilingual education
- lack of minority role models


School Segregation: Why is it a problem?
3. Black, Hispanic, and American Indian students have lower average scores on NAEP and IQ tests.

Test Bias
- culture-specific content
- test situation
- teacher expectations
- health and nutritional factors
- perceived usefulness of high test scores


Fix the students or fix schools? 4 approaches

- change students or change the economic system
- assimilation: compensatory education and busing
- multiculturalism and cultural immersion
- interactionist: teacher's behavior