Week 9: Inequality Around the World Flashcards Preview

Urban Inequality > Week 9: Inequality Around the World > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 9: Inequality Around the World Deck (10):

South Africa

- colonization of indigenous Blacks by the Dutch (mid-1600s): racial inequality and genocide
- British take control: Dutch increased conquering and subordination of native population
- Dutch (Afrikaners) established apartheid
--- rigid caste system, institutionalized inequality
--- White control of land and wealth
--- Blacks denied right to vote
- international pressure (sanctions) + rising protests
- first non-racial elections: Nelson Mandela
- end of apartheid, but continuing inequality


Northern Ireland

- Britain control over Ireland (16th century)
- tensions between native Catholic Irish, Protestant English settlers and Protestant Scottish
- Division: Northern controlled by Protestants
- Catholics demanded equality
- violence between Protestants and Catholics
- Joint Protestant-Catholic government elected in 2007
- still, highly segregated


Quebec, Canada

- conflict between White colonizers
- British control of French settlers
- violence, separatist movement
- referendums failed
- establishment of French as official language
- possibility of separation



- created by Great Britain (WW1)
- comprised 3 provinces from old Ottoman Empire
- grouped 3 ethnic groups: Kurds, Sunni Muslims, and Shi'ite Muslims
- Shi'ites comprise 60% of population
- Sunni, favored by British, controlled until 2003
- US invasion: end of Saddam Hussein's dictatorship, beginning of civil war
- Kurdish autonomy, continuing violence between Sunnis and Shi'ites


Former Soviet Union

- created 1917, Bolshevik revolution led by Lenin
- comprised territory annexed and conquered by the Russian empire since the 16th century
- Lenin had defended the right of secession; in reality, the centralized state (ruled by Russians) prevented independence
- Stalin's dictatorship suppressed any thought of independence
- After Stalin's death and reinstatement of freedom of expression, ethnic groups sought independence
- violence among ethnic groups (Azerbaijan and Armenia; separatist Chechens in Russia)


Former Yugoslavia

- formed in 1918, comprised of diverse ethnic groups
- controlled by Serbs, secession suppressed by central rule and fear of Soviet domination
- with the death of its leader and the dissolution of Soviet Union, groups sought independence
- Civil war in Bosnia: Serbs, Croats, and Bosniasks
--- Ethnic cleansing (250,000 killed)
--- Peace agreement (1995)
- Civil war in Serbia: independence of Kosovo
--- independence declared in 2008


Israel and Palestine

- both Jews and Arabs view the area as their homeland
- no significant Jewish presence, are settled by Arabs
- Jewish return to the area after Holocaust
- state of Israel is created in 1948 against the will of native Arabs
- violence against and subordination of Arabs
- Israeli expansion on Arab territory
- In 1993, both parties acknowledged each other's claim to the land
- Peace talks in 2000, 2003, 2007
- violence still continues


Great Britain and France

- Most immigrants from Africa and Asia
- inequality and discrimination similar to minorities in the US: employment, housing, education
- violent uprising


Switzerland and Hawaii

- diverse groups coexist
- Switzerland, 4 official languages
- Hawaii, 3 official languages
- Switzerland: groups were voluntarily incorporated
- Hawaii: natives were organized, Whites respected and cooperated, interest in trade rather than conquest, interracial marriage was common


Brazil and Mexico

- both have levels of assimilation, considered to have peaceful intergroup relations
- most colonizers were male: more interracial marriages
- colonizers were Christians: emphasized equality and conversion of Natives
- Brazil: class over racial inequality
- Mexico: large and developed native population