What are the body's non-specific defense mechanisms that protect against infection?
Intact Skin/Mucous membranes, Inflammatory Response
The process by which cell engulf microorganisms and cellular debris.
What is the Inflammatory Response?
A local and non-specifc defensive agent that occurs once the external barriers are compromised. It occurs the same way every time. It is an adaptive mechanism.
What are the three things that the Inflammatory Response does?
Destroys or dilutes the injurious agent, prevents further spread of the injury, promotes the repair of damaged tissues
What assessment findings indicate inflammation?
Pain, Swelling, Redness, Heat, Impaired function of the part if the injury is severe
What are the causes of Inflammation?
Physical Agents, Chemical Agents, Microorganisms
What is meant by physical agents as a cause for inflammation?
mechanical objects causing trauma to tissue, excessive heat or cold and radiation
What is meant by chemical agents as a cause for inflammation?
Includes internal irritants and external irritants
What is meant by microorganisms as a cause for inflammation?
Bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites
What are the three stages of inflammation?
Stage One: Vascular and Cellular Response, Stage Two: Exudate Production, Stage Three: Repair
Stage One: Vascular and Cellular Response
short period of vasoconstriction at the site of injury ---> rapid vasodilation ---> marked increase in blood supply (hyperemia) ---> REDNESS AND HEAT --> Increase in vascular permeability ---> Fluids, proteins, and leukocytes move into the interstitial spaces --> SWELLING & PAIN --> Leukocytosis
What observations would you find in an assessment with a person in stage on of the inflammatory response?
Redness and Heat due to vasodilation, Swelling and pain due to altered vascular permeability that causes an outpouring of fluid, proteins, and leukocytes into the interstitial spaces
What is vasoconstriction?
Constriction of blood vessels (smaller)
What is vasodilation?
Dilation of small blood vessels (bigger)
What is hyperemia?
A marked increase in blood supply
What are the concerns regarding inflammation (stage one)?
Too much fluid pouring into areas such as the pleural or pericardial cavity can seriously affect organ function
What is leukocytosis?
Blood flow slows in the dilated vessels. This altered rate of flow helps in moving more leukocytes to the injured tissues. In response to the exit of leukocytes from the blood vessels, the bone marrow produces large numbers of leukocytes and releases them into the blood stream called leukocytosis.
clear, watery plasma
consists of clear and blood tinged drainage that is commonly seen in surgical incisions
Large amounts of red blood cells, indicating damage to capillaries that is severe enough to allow escape of RBCs from plasma. Seen in open wounds
Stage Two: Exudate Production
Fluid, dead phagocytic cells, dead tissue cells --> "exudate"
Thicker than serous exudate because of the presence of pus, which consists of leukocytes, liquefied dead tissue debris, and dead and living bacteria varying in color including blue, green or yellow. Color depends on the causative organism.
Which type of exudate would you not wish to find in a clinical assessment?
Stage Three: Repair
Involved the repair of injured tissue by regeneration or replacement with fibrous tissue (scar) formation.
The replacement of destroyed tissue cells by cells that are identical or similar in structure and function
Young connective tissue with new capillaries formed during the wound healing process
What is the Immune Response?
Body's 3rd, slowest line of defense. Directed against identifiable bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other infectious agents.
What is Immunity?
The specific resistance of the body to infectious agents.
What initiates the immune response?