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Flashcards in week four Deck (156)
1

Anaphylactic Reaction

A severe allergic reaction to a substance or chemical that happens quickly after exposure. Signs of this are: hives, rapid pulse, arrhythmia, fluid in lungs, low blood pressure, mental confusion, blue skin, swelling of throat, swelling of eyes or face, weakness, and wheezing.

2

Cumulative Effect

the increasing response to repeated doses of a drug that occurs when the rate of administration exceeds the rate of metabolism or excretion

3

Iatrogenic

unexpected side effects resulting from treatment by a physician

4

Idiosyncratic Effect

a different, unexpected or individual effect from the normal one usually expected from a medication; the occurrence of unpredictable and unexplainable symptoms

5

Pharmacodynamics

The process by which medications produce their effects in the body (mechanism of action, onset of action, peak effect, duration of action, half-life)

6

Mechanism of action

The process by which a medication produces its effects

7

Onset of Action

The time it tkaes for a drug to produce a therapeutic response

8

Peak Effect

The time it takes for a drug to reach its maximum therapeutic response

9

Duration of Action

The time the drug concentration is sufficient to elicit a therapeutic response

10

Half Life

The time it takes the body to eliminate half of the medication

11

Pharmacokinetics

The study of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion

12

Receptor Site

where the drug attaches itself to a cell membrane

13

Substance Abuse

any unnecessary or improper use of chemical substances for nonmedical purposes

14

Urticaria

also hives; an acute allergic reaction in which round wheals (welts) develop on the skin, usually accompanied by intense itching

15

What is action affected by?

Developmental factors, gender, cultural, ethnic & genetic factors, psychological factors (what they might expect VS what really happens), environment, diet, illness and/or disease (ESP kidney, liver, cardiovascular), time of administration

16

Adverse Effect

an effect of a drug which may be unfavorable to the patient's health; an action or effect, other than that which is desired, such as an allergic reaction

17

Dosage

the amount of a drug to be administered.

18

Drug Allergy

an immunologic reaction to a drug

19

Drug Tolerance

a condition in which successive increases in the dosage of a drug are required to maintain a given therapeutic effect

20

Drug Toxicity

A harmful effect of a drug on an organism or tissue resulting from an overdose, ingestion of a drug intended for external use, or from a buildup of a drug in the blood due to impaired metabolism or excretion

21

Generic Name

The name given to a drug by the United States Adopted Names Council. Also called the nonproprietary name. The generic name is much shorter and simpler than the chemical name and is not protected by trademark.

22

Nursing Implication

helps nurse apply the nursing process to pharacotherapeutics by providing a step by step guide to clinical assessment, implementation, and evaluations of the outcomes of pharmacologic therapy

23

Side Effect

any effect that is caused by a drug and that is different from the drug's intended effect. not as severe as adverse effects

24

Trade Name

The brand name that a manufacturer gives a medication; the name is capitalized.

25

Therapeutic Effect (Use)

The desired or intended effect of a particular medication.

26

Alternagel

Aluminum hydroxide

27

Maalox

Magnesium/Aluminum Suspension

28

Medication Absorption

The process by which a medication passes into the bloodstream

29

Medication Distribution

The process by which a medication is transported from its site of absorption to its site of action (receptor site)

30

Medication Metabolism (biotransformation)

The process by which a medication is changed from its original chemical structure into a less active form, usually one that can be readily eliminated by the body

31

Medication Excretion

The process by which medications and/or their metabolites are eliminated from the body

32

Local Effect

The effects of a drug at the site where the drug is applied or in the surrounding tissues

33

Systemic Effect

General effects caused by distribution of drug throughout body.

34

What is the most important site for medication metabolism in the body?

The liver

35

Routes of medication excretion

Primary route is by the kidneys released as urine. Others are feces, breath, perspiration, saliva, and breast milk

36

Antagonistic Interaction

the effect of one medicine is canceled or reduced when taken with another medicine

37

Synergistic Interaction

an interaction that occurs when drugs that are taken together combine their actions so that the total effect is greater than either drug would produce alone

38

Client

Takes medications and reports response

39

Nurse

responsible for safe and accurate administration of medications, monitors and evaluates, client education

40

Doctor

Decides appropriate treatment; evaluates it and continues or discontinues the treatment

41

Pharmacist

Prepares and dispenses medications; monitors and evaluates; client education

42

Sources of medication information in the health care facility

pharmacopoeia or formulary, nursing pharmacology textbooks and reference drug handbooks, physicians' desk reference, product package inserts (provide detailed information), nursing journals, pharmacist (when information can not be found elsewhere), and valid internet sites

43

Nursing Implications

benefits, minimize risks, assessments, storage, preparation, administration, interactions and contraindications, client education

44

What are the major features of the Controlled Substance Act?

research on abuse, prevention through resources for education, treatment and rehabilitation, enhanced law enforcement, classification system based on abuse potential and medical use of each drug, with limits on how often a prescription can be filled

45

PRN

as needed

46

STAT

once, immediately

47

Seven Parts of a Medication Order

Client's Full Name, Date including year and time the order is written, Name of Medication, Dose to be given (including frequency), Route of Administration, Frequency of Administration, Signature of Prescriber and their title (must be legible)

48

Nursing responsibilities associated with controlled substances

must be stored double locked or in computerized system and each dose must be recorded, wasting is witnessed by two nurses and counted at the end of each shift by outgoing and oncoming nurses

49

Six Rights of Medication Administration

Right Medication, The Right Client, At the Right Time, In the Right Dose, VIA The Right Route, With The Right Documentation

50

Nursing responsibilities associated with a medication error

first check or assess the client, always acknowledge the error, notify the MD/provide follow-up treatment, document the facts in the client's record, full out an incident report, and learn from the error

51

Common Causes for medication errors

failure to read the label, failure to understand the purpose, failure to check the client's I.D. (two forms of ID), failure to question an unclear order, misreading the label, preparing the wrong dose, using the incorrect route

52

How does the RN evaluate the client's response to prn medications?

monitor the client's response, documents the effect of the medication including both objective and subjective data, as well as any side/adverse/secondary effects. monitor serum blood levels when appropriate for both therapeutic blood levels as well as toxic blood levels and may also check other blood work for signs of side effects

53

Nursing responsibilities associated with the administration of prn medications

collaborate with client, listen to a client's complaints, do teaching. judge whether the drug is needed and if it is safe. Assess and evaluate before and after PRN administration. Document data that supports decision to give the PRN, date and time PRN administered and client's response to PRN.

54

Standing

Given routinely and perhaps for an unlimited time

55

Single

Given only once

56

Factor: developmental

kidney function, immature liver and kidneys, pregnancy

57

Factor: gender

body fat and water distribution, hormones

58

Factor: Culture, Ethnicity, and Genetics

abnormal sensitivity or different metabolism, ethnopharmacology (dose and toxicity, enzyme production), a big body needs a big dose

59

Factor: Diet

Nutrients can effect action (vitamin K and coumadin is an example)

60

Factor: Environment

hot = vasodilation, cold = vasoconstriction

61

Factor: Psychologic

what they think might happen (placebo)

62

Factor: Illness and disease

circulatory, liver, or kidney disease have an effect, consider the patient's condition and reason the medication is given

63

Factor: Time of Administration

Meals and sleeping patterns

64

Rounding rules for tablets (not scored)

5 or up, round up. 4 or below, round down.

65

Rounding rules for liquids

Carry the calculation to two or three decimal places and round to the nearest tenth or hundredth if needed ex. 4.23 = 4.2 on a 5mL syringe

66

cc

cubic centimeter

67

g or gm

gram

68

gr

grain

69

kg

kilogram

70

mcg

microgram

71

mg

milligram

72

mL

milliliter

73

tbsp or T

tablespoon

74

tsp

teaspoon

75

DSSP

two teaspoons

76

1000 mcg

1 mg

77

60 mg

gr 1

78

1 g

1000 mg

79

5 mL

1 tsp

80

1 cc

1 mL

81

1 kg

2.2 lbs

82

1 oz

30 mL

83

1 qt

1 liter

84

1 liter

1000 mL

85

Buccal

toward the inside of the cheek

86

Medication Dispensing System

hardware/software system for dispensing drugs in a controlled and secure manner by qualified personnel can be a medication cart, cabinet, room or automated dispensing cabinet

87

Placebo

something presented as a drug, but having no actual effect

88

Sublingual

under the tongue

89

Topical

direct application of medication to the skin, eye, ear, nose (inhalation) or other parts of the body

90

Transdermal

a method of administering medication through the unbroken skin via patch or ointment

91

P.O. Time

30-60 minutes

92

I.M. Time

10-15 minutes

93

I.V. Time

immediate

94

Sublingual Time

rapid absorption but takes time to dissolve

95

Topical/Transdermal Time

constant amount released slowly over long period of time

96

P.R. Time

unpredictable absorption

97

Subcutaneous Time

poor blood supply to subcutaneous tissue as opposed to muscles leads to slow absorption

98

Capsule

A gelatinous container to hold a drug in powder, liquid, or oil form

99

Enteric coated tablet

Medication designed to dissolve in the small intestine rather than the stomach

100

Elixir

A sweetened and aromatic solution of alcohol used as a vehicle for medicinal agents

101

Extended (sustained) Release Capsule/Tablet

Preparation that allows for slow and continuous release over a designated time period

102

Liquid/Solution

Medication dissolved in another substance

103

Suspension

One of more medications finely divided in a liquid such as water

104

Syrup

An aqueous solution of sugar often used to disguise unpleasant tasting medications

105

Nursing responsibilities associated with changing the form of a medication

The nurse can not independently change the form of a medication. When oral medications are ordered and the client develops vomiting, the physician will have to be contacted to change the form of medication administration.

106

Client situations in which the administration of oral medications is contraindicated

vomiting, gastric or intestinal suction, unconscious, unable to swallow, unable to take anything by mouth (NPO)

107

ATC

around the clock

108

ā

artery

109

h

hour

110

OD

right eye or overdose. DO NOT USE *

111

po

by mouth

112

qid

four times a day

113

I.M.

intramuscular

114

OU

both eyes. DO NOT USE *

115

prn

as needed

116

q4h

every four hours

117

tab

tablet

118

with

119

bid

twice daily

120

S.C.

subcutaneous. DO NOT USE *

121

tinct.

tincture

122

gtt

drop

123

mEq

milliequivalent

124

pc

after meals

125

p bar

after

126

sl

sublingual

127

ac

before meals

128

hs

at bedtime or half strength. DO NOT USE *

129

OS

left eye. DO NOT USE *

130

pr

per rectum

131

qod

every other day. DO NOT USE *

132

stat

immediately

133

s bar

without

134

OTC

over the counter

135

q

each, every

136

tid

three times a day

137

cap

capsule

138

I.V.

intravenously

139

QD

Once a day/every day. DO NOT USE *

140

Elix

Elixer

141

gr

grain

142

qh

every hour

143

qs

as much as needed, as much as suffices

144

D/C

discharge or discontinue. DO NOT USE *

145

XR

extended release

146

SR

slow release

147

Alternagel

Aluminum hydroxide

148

Maalox

Magnesium/aluminum suspension

149

Use of Magnesium/aluminum suspension

adjunctive therapy in the treatment of peptic ulcer pain and to promote healing of duodenal and gastric ulcers. useful in a variety of GI complaints including hyperacidity, indigestion, reflux esophagitis

150

Action of Magnesium/aluminum suspension

neutralizes gastric acid after dissolving in gastric contents. pepsin is inactivated if pH is raised to 4 or greater.

151

side/adverse effects of magnesium/aluminum suspension

aluminum salts: constipation. magnesium salts: diarrhea. magnesium salts: hypermagesemia. aluminium salts: hypophosphatemia.

152

Nursing implications for magnesium/aluminum suspension

magnesium and aluminum are combined as antacids to balance the constipating effects of aluminum with the laxative effects of magnesium.

153

Use of aluminum hydroxide

antacid, hyperphosphatemia in chronic renal failure, adjunct in gastric, peptic, duodenal ulcers, hyperacidity, reflux esophagitis, heartburn, stress ulcer prevention in critically ill, GERD

154

Action of aluminum hydroxide

Neutralizes gastric acidity, binds phosphates in GI tract, these phosphates are then excreted

155

Side/adverse effects of aluminum hydroxide

constipation, obstruction, anorexia, fecal impaction, hypophosphatemia, hypercalciuria

156

Nursing implications for aluminum hydroxide

avoid phosphate foods, increase fluids to 2L/ day unless contraindicated, not for prolonged use in patients with low serum phosphate or patients on low sodium diets, stools may appear white or speckled, check with prescriber after 2 week of self-prescribed antacid use, separate other medication by 2 hours, assess pain, phosphate, calcium levels, and constipation