Flashcards in week six Deck (192)
a prolonged disorder of eating due to loss of appetite
measurement and study of the human body and its parts and capacities
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
the rate at which the body metabolizes food to maintain the energy requirements of a person who is awake and at rest. It is the rate at which the body spends energy to keep all of the life-sustaining processes going.
unit of heat defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree centigrade at atmospheric pressure
the results in the body of poor nutrition; undernutrition, overnutrition, or any nutrient deficiency
Visual representation of the relative daily portions of various food groups; replaced MyPyramid in 2011.
A subjective, unpleasant, wavelike sensation in the back of the throat, epigastrium, or the abdomen that may lead to the urge or the need to vomit
Negative Nitrogen Balance
Occurs when more nitrogen is excreted from the body than is retained from dietary protein sources. Occurs during the aging process, starvation, and extreme stress.
Organic and inorganic substances found in foods that are required for body functioning
What are the nutrient categories?
Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, water, vitamins, minerals
What are essential nutrients?
Must be supplied by our diet
What are non-essential nutrients
Can be made in the body
Calories in protein
Calories in carbs
Calories in fat
Calories in alcohol
What factors influence caloric requirement?
age/growth, gender, climate, activity, fever, illness, trauma, surgery
What are the important functions of proteins?
growth, repair and maintenance of body structures and tissues. Involved in the manufacture of hormones such as insulin. Act as enzymes to help bring about some chemical reactions such as digestion.
What is a complete protein?
A complete protein contains all 9 of the essential amino acids in the correct proportions to maintain tissues and support body structures. Includes most animal proteins, cheese, and eggs
What is an incomplete protein?
An incomplete protein lacks one or more of the essential amino acids. Usually vegetables.
What is a complementary protein?
Two proteins that when combined provide adequate amounts and proportions of all essential amino acids. Black beans and rice. Peanut butter and bread.
The element that distinguishes proteins from lipids and carbohydrates.
Positive Nitrogen Balance
Occurs when more nitrogen is retained in the body than is excreted. This may occur in infancy, childhood, pregnancy and during lactation.
Studies that are helpful in determining the protein requirement of the body throughout the life cycle. Nitrogen balance occurs when the intake of nitrogen is equal to the output of nitrogen.
Sources of protein
whole grains, oatmeal, crackers, dark green and deep yellow vegetables, cottage cheese, yogurt, hard cheese, chicken, steak, dry beans, peanut butter
Protein deficiency problems
stunted growth, muscle wasting, decreased reflexes, swollen limbs and face, abnormal weight, swollen gums, cracked lips, swollen tongue, red, eyes pale and dry, brittle pale nails, patchy scaly skin, bruises, non-healing sores, mental apathy, tired
Stages of life when protein intake needs to be increased
pregnancy, breast feeding, infancy to childhood, emotional stress, physical stress, infection, higher environmental temperature
Organic compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that are stored in the muscles and liver. CHO are also sugar compounds made by plants when they are exposed to light.
Functions of CHO
provides a quick source of energy in the form of glucose, spares break-down of protein for energy, aids in normal functioning of intestines (as CHO in fiber form), excesses of glucose stored as fast so it can later be convered to fuel if needed