Flashcards in Whiten et al (1999) Reading: Cultures in Chimpanzees Deck (15):
How many different behaviour patterns were studied in Chimpanzees? Give some examples.
39 different behaviour patterns
-tool usage, grooming and courtship behaviours,
How is culture defined in the biological sciences?
1. inter-generation transmission of behaviour may occur either genetically or through social learning, with processes of variation and selection shaping biological evolution
2. cultural evolution
Define cultural behaviour.
behaviour that is transmitted repeatedly through social or observational learning to become a population level characteristic
What are the three reasons that Whiten et. al give for how the tabulations of population differences amongst chimpanzees are problematic?
2. do not clarify the extent to which each behaviour pattern is habitual in the community
3. do not systematically document the absence of behaviour patterns present elsewhere
What was the main way that chimpanzees learn?
copy the methods used by others
i.e. how to manipulate and open artificial 'fruits' designed as analogues of wild foods
What have experimental studies on the acquisition of tool use and food processing skills by both children and captive chimpanzees indicate?
there is a complex mix of imitation, other forms of social learning, and individual learning
What was Phase 1 of the Whiten et. al. study?
established a comprehensive list of candidate cultural variants, which are behaviours suspected by research workers to be specific to particular chimpanzee populations
What were the main results of the Whiten et. al (1999) study?
1. some customary and habitual patterns are unique to certain communities, but others are shared between two or more communities
2. profiles of each community are distinctively different, each with a pattern comprising many behavioural variants
3. chimpanzees have rich, behavioural complexity
What is the only major difference between the western and eastern populations of chimpanzees? (Whiten et. al 1999)
nutcracking occurs in the west
How are differences between cultures constituted?
constituted by a multiplicity of variations in technology and social customs
What do chimpanzees do when giving artificial 'fruit'? (Whiten et. al)
copy the methods used by others to manipulated and open artificial fruits
Whiten et. al concluded that chimpanzees have what?
rich behavioural complexity
Cultural differences (often known as ________) are well established phenomena in the animal kingdom and are maintained through what?
traditions, maintained through a variety of social transmission mechanisms
Some customary and habitual patterns are _______ to certain chimpanzee communities but others are ______ between two or more communities