00 Prologue: The Rise of Democratic Ideas Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 00 Prologue: The Rise of Democratic Ideas Deck (14):
1

government

the system by which a nation, state, or community is governed

2

monarchy

a form of government with a king or queen at the head

3

aristocracy

a form of government in which power is held by the nobility

4

oligarchy

a small group of people having control of a country, organization, or institution

5

democracy

a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives

6

direct democracy

a form of government in which citizens rule and make laws directly rather than through representatives

7

republic

a state in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives, and which has an elected or nominated president rather than a monarch

8

senate

the state council of the ancient Roman republic and empire, which shared legislative power with the popular assemblies

9

Solon

a respected Athenian statesman, passed a law outlawing slavery based on debt and canceled the farmers’ debts; established four classes of citizenship based on wealth rather than heredity (the three higher classes were able to hold public office but even the lowest class of citizens could vote in the assembly); introduced the legal concept that any citizen could bring charges against wrongdoers

10

Cleisthenes

leader generally regarded as the founder of democracy in Athens; reorganized the assembly to balance the power of the rich and poor; increased the power of the assembly by allowing all citizens to submit laws for debate and passage

11

Pericles

strengthened Athenian democracy by increasing the number of paid public officials and by paying jurors, which enabled poorer citizens to participate in the government

12

Socrates

encouraged his students to examine their most closely held beliefs

13

Plato

wanted society governed not by the richest and most powerful but by the wisest, whom he called philosopher-kings

14

Twelve Tables

established the idea that all free citizens had the right to protection of the law and that laws would be fairly administered