05 Absolute Monarchs in Europe, 1500-1800 Flashcards Preview

KICS W2 > 05 Absolute Monarchs in Europe, 1500-1800 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 05 Absolute Monarchs in Europe, 1500-1800 Deck (36):
1

Philip II

Spanish king who took control of Portugal but failed in his invasion of England

2

absolute monarch

king or queen with complete control

3

divine right

the idea that God created the monarchy and that the monarch acted as God's representative

4

Edict of Nantes

order that gave Huguenots the right to live in peace in Catholic France; issued by Henry IV and canceled by Louis XIV

5

Cardinal Richelieu

chief minister of France during Louis XIII's reign who reduced the power of the nobles and strengthened the power of the monarchy

6

skepticism

belief that nothing could be known for certain

7

Louis XIV

French king who was an absolute ruler

8

intendant

French government officials who collected taxes and administered justice

9

Jean Baptiste Colbert

Chief Minister of Finance under Louis XIV whose policies of mercantilism caused France's economy to grow and prosper

10

War of Spanish Succession

war fought by other European nations against France and Spain when those two states tried to unite their thrones

11

Thirty Years' War

conflict beginning in 1618 over religion, territory, and power among European ruling families

12

Maria Theresa

empress of Austria whose main enemy was Prussia

13

Frederick the Great

leader of Prussia who sought to increase its territory

14

Seven Years' War

conflict beginning in 1756 in which the forces of Britain and Prussia battled those of Austria, France, and Russia, and other countries

15

Ivan the Terrible

ruler who added lands to Russia, gave it a code of laws, and also used his secret police to execute "traitors"

16

boyar

Russian noble who owned land

17

Peter the Great

important leader of Russia who started westernization

18

westernization

use of western Europe as a model of change

19

Charles I

king of England who was tried and executed

20

English Civil War

conflict beginning in 1642 between the Royalists, or Cavaliers, and the Puritan supporters of Parliament

21

Oliver Cromwell

leader of the Puritans who ruled England after the English Civil War

22

Restoration

period after the monarchy was resumed in England

23

habeas corpus

law giving prisoners the right to obtain a document saying that the prisoner cannot go to jail without being brought before a judge

24

Glorious Revolution

overthrow of King James II (a Catholic) and replacement with William and Mary (Protestants) in 1688

25

constitutional monarchy

government in which laws limit the monarch's power

26

cabinet

a group of government ministers that was a link between the monarch and Parliament

27

Miguel de Cervantes

author of Don Quixote

28

Rembrandt van Rijn

painter of The Night Watch

29

Versailles

the magnificent palace built for Louis XIV

30

Michel de Montaigne

writer who became a skeptic and developed the essay form

31

Henry IV

a Protestant prince who became a Catholic king

32

Cardinal Mazarin

minister to Louix XIV whose policies drove nobles to rebel against the boy king

33

czar

means "caesar"

34

St. Petersburg

Russian seaport built to create water routes to Europe

35

English Bill of Rights

made clear the limits on royal power after the Glorious Revolution

36

James I

king of Scotland who inherited Elizabeth I's throne