Flashcards in 0219 - Blood Composition and Group - EG Deck (25):
List the main components of blood.
Cellular:erythrocytes leucocytes - granulocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils; lymphocytes: B and T cells; monocytes.plateletsFluid:plama, serum.
Define Heamatocrit (Hct)
The proportion of blood consisting of erythrocytes.male: 0.39-0.49 female 0.33-0.43.
What is anaemia?
A Hct below normal.Indicates a pathologically reduced capacity to transport oxygen. Symptoms include dyspnoea, fatigue, chest pain, syncope, pica (craving to eat dirt)
What is erythrocytosis?
A Hct above normal.
Define Red Cell Count (RCC).
An absolute value indicating the number of cell.male: 4.3-5.9 x 10^6/mm3female: 3.5-5.0 x 10^6 mm3
Define Haemoglobin (Hb)
The dominant protein of the red cell, involved in oxygen transport. A complex protein of 4 subunits (2 alpha and 2 beta), each with a haem group containing an iron atommale: 136-172 g/Lfemale: 120-150 g/L
What are young RBCs known as?
Where is bone marrow found?
Within the vertebrae, pelvis, sternum.
What is erythropoietin (EPO)?
A polypeptide with hormonal action on erythroid precursors in the marrow. Produced by the kidney, upregulated expression in hypoxic conditions.
What is the name of the precursor chain that determines blood groups?
What is the role of neutrophils?What is a normal count?
N = 52-62%To phagocytose foreign particles, bacteria, debris through the use of intracellular granules with superoxide radical and bacteriocidal enzymes
What is the role of eosinophils?What is a normal count?
N = 1-3 %Immune response against parasitic infection by engulfing items coated in anti-bodies.
What is the role of basophils?What is a normal count?
N = 0-0.75%mediate allergic reactions. contain histamine.
What does neutrophilia imply?
>62%bacterial infection, drug response, trauma, heatstroke, electrical injury.
What does eosinophilia imply?
>3%parasitic infection, drugs, chronic myeloid leukaemia, vasculitis
What does basophilia imply?
> 0.75%allergies, chronic myeloid leukaemia
What does lymphocytosis imply?
> 33%viral / atypical infectionlymphocytic anaemia
What is a normal lymphocyte count?What are the 3 types of lymphocytes and their main function?
25-33%B cells - produce antibodiesT cells - produce signalling molecules to fine tune immune responseNK cells - mediate cytotoxicity.
How long to platelets live for?What is the normal platelet count?
5 days.150-400 x 10^9/L
What is thrombocytopenia?
Low platelet count.Caused by infection, certain drugs, immune destruction, marrow disorders
What is thrombocytosis?
High platelet count.reactive phenomenon in chronic inflammation, blood loss, myeloproliferative disorders.
What is plasma?
Fluid portion of blood, consisting of 90% water and 10% dissolved solutes, such as electrolytes, nutrients, organic wastes, and proteins such as albumin, globulins, and fibrinogen
What is serum?
The fluid portion of blood without coagulation factors so as not to clot on standing.
What is albumin?
Major serum protein (80%).N = 35-50 g/Lsynthesised in the liver.maintain oncotic pressure.Purified albumin can be made by fractionation of large scale donor blood for use in treatment of shock and liver disease.