0211 - Intro to Biochemistry - RM Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 0211 - Intro to Biochemistry - RM Deck (15):

Biochemical Triad

Molecules - active participantsActions - metabolism - change of one substance to anotherControllers - regulators - commonly genes and enzymes.


Biochemical Process (repeats for each aspect)

Stimulus (e.g. food intake) activates a Signal (e.g. increased blood glucose), which, through a signalling pathway generates a Response (insulin production) to address the original stimulus while generatingFeedback (excess insulin, limit production) (commonly negative to the signalling pathway) to regulate the process.


What are the Nucleic Acids

Nucleotide bases (C, G, A, T(U)) that have polymerised into either DNA or RNA, and wrapped around a histone to coil into chromosomes.


What are Proteins

Polymers of amino acids. Their functions include transport, catalysing reactions (as enzymes), providing structure, and signalling.Key Point - Protein structures are very tailored to their specific function.


Four levels of Protein Organisation

Primary (basic amino acid sequence)Secondary (basic single helix form)Tertiary (more complex single helix, wrapped around itself)Quartenerary (Multiple tertiary structures wrapped around each other)


Classes of Fats

Fatty Acids (long chain), or cholesterol (rings)Can be either sourced from diet or synthesised.


Uses of Fats

Primarily used for energy provision, but also play important roles in cellular structure (membrane) and signalling.No upper limit of fat storage in the body.


Vitamins and Minerals

Can be either water soluble or lipid soluble.Primarily function as enzyme co-factors, but also regulate metabolism, and influence tissue growth and differentiation.


Role of Carbohydrates

Primarily cellular energy provision, but also aid in structure, cell recognition, signalling, and biological precursors.


General Formula of Carbohydrates

(CH2O)n (also CnH2nOn)


Storage of Carbohydrates

Most commonly glycogen in the liver and muscles.


What is metabolism

A series of chemical reactions that cover both the storage/synthesis and use of energy to allow us to do everything we do.Ultimately - the burning of sugars, fats, and proteins to either make energy, or bigger molecules.


Factors Required for Metabolism

Enzymes - catalysts and co-factorsCompartments - group molecules together to prevent undesired reactionsPathways - can be linear or cyclicalBranch Points - link to a different pathwayRegulation - Key to ensuring that futile cycles do not occur.


Importance of Acetyl-CoA

All complex and simple molecules can become Acetyl-CoA. At this point they can either be re-formed into any other bio molecule, or enter the TCA cycle for ATP production.


What co-factors will always be present when a dehydrogenase enzyme is used

Either an FAD, an NAD, or an NADP - these serve as the recipients for the H- electron the hydrogenase spins off, and are thus reduced.

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