0602 - Introduction to neoplasia - EG Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 0602 - Introduction to neoplasia - EG Deck (29):
1

Define tumour.

A "swelling". May be non-neoplastic or neoplastic.

2

Define neoplasm.

A "new growth". An abnormal mass of tissue, the growth of which exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of normal tissues and persists in the same excessive manner after cessation of the stimuli which evoked the changes. Believed to by due to accumulation of somatic mutations that alter regulatory processes.The abnormal mass is purposeless, preys on the host and is virtually autonomous.

3

What is oncogenesis?

The process of forming a neoplasm.

4

What is the most unique feature of malignant neoplasms?

metastasis

5

Malignant cells tend to have cytological and architectural changes to that of normal tissue. List the (microscopic) cytological features of malignant cells. (6)

(1) cellular pleomorphism - variable cell size and shape. (2) nuclear pleomorphism - variable nuclear size and shape. (3) increased nuclear:cytoplasm ratio (N1:4 to 1:6; ratio may become 1:1). (4) Hyperchromitic nuclei - increased DNA as visualised as increased Haemotoxylin stain. (5) increased mitosis and abnormal mitosis (6) tumour giant cells

6

Malignant cells tend to have cytological and architectural changes to that of normal tissue. List the (microscopic) architectural features of malignant cells and contrast this to benign.

Malignant cells have disordered arrangement of cells to one another and infiltrate other tissues, whereas benign cells tend to be more orderly and grow by expansion often within a capsule.

7

Define differentiation and how it is used to describe neoplasms.

the extent to which cells resemble their normal counterpart (morphologically cytology and architecture and functionally) a neoplasm can be classified (referred to as grading of a neoplasm) as either well, moderately, or poorly differentiated. All benign are well differentiated. Well differentiated neoplasms will try to maintain original cell function.

8

How does the rate of growth compare with benign to malignant neoplasms?

Benign are slow growing and malignant are fast growing (as a rule) the rate of growth correlates with blood supply, and fast growing neoplasms may undergo central necrosis due to rapid growth.

9

What are the three pathways for metastasis to occur?

(1) seeding via body cavities (2) lymphatic spread (3) hematogenous spread

10

What is the suffix for a benign neoplasm?

"oma"

11

What is the name for a benign neoplasm of fibroblasts?

fibroma

12

What is the name for a benign neoplasm of blood vessels?

angioma

13

What is the name for a benign neoplasm of smooth muscle?

leiomyoma

14

What is the name for a benign neoplasm with finger-like projections?

papilloma

15

What is the name for a benign neoplasm that forms glands or originates from glands?

adenoma

16

What is the name for a benign neoplasm that forms glands with cystic areas?

cystadenoma

17

What is a fibroma?

benign neoplasm of fibroblasts

18

What is an angioma?

benign neoplasm of blood vessels

19

What is a leiomyoma?

benign neoplasm of smooth muscle

20

What is a papilloma?

benign neoplasm with finger-like projections

21

What is an adenoma?

benign neoplasm that forms glands or originates from glands

22

What is a cytadenoma?

benign neoplasm that forms glands with cystic areas

23

What is the suffix for a malignant neoplasm of mesenchymal origin?

sarcoma

24

What is the suffic for a malignant neoplasm of epithelial origin?

carcinoma

25

What is desmoplastic stroma?

a fibrous response made by malignant cells, aids support and increases blood supply to cells.

26

Compare grading to staging.

Grading refers to the differentiation and staging refers to the level of invasion.

27

Define dysplasia

An abnormality of development, growth, or differentiation

28

What is a paraneoplastic syndrome?

A disease or symptom that is the consequence of cancer (ie cytokines from the cancer) in the body but unlike mass effect, is not due to the local presence of cancer cells.

29

What is a malignant neoplasm of striated muscle known as?

rhabdomyosarcoma.

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