Flashcards in 0225 - Cell nutrients and cell energy - EG Deck (20):
Who published the Australian Dietary Guidelines?
National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) in 2013
What are the 5 main guidelines proposed in the Australian Dietary Guidelines?
(1) Achieve and maintain a healthy weight, be physically active and choose amounts of nutritious food and drinks to meet your energy needs. (2) enjoy a wide variety of nutritious foods from the five food groups: vegetables; fruits; grain; lean meats, poultry, fish; milk, joghurt; and to drink plenty of water. (3) limit intake of foods containing saturated fat, added salt, added sugar. (4) encourage, support and promote breastfeeding. (5) care for your food, prepare and store food safely.
What were some of the key findings (related to nutrition) in the Australian Health Survey of 2011-2013?
(1) 63.4% prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults in Australia. (2) 25.3% prevalence of overweight and obesity in children 5-17 years. (3) over 60.0% of adults with a waist circumference that put them at increased risk of developing chronic disease. (4) over 21.5% of adults had high blood pressure equal to or greater than 140/90 mmHg
Provide examples of macronutrients and micronutrients.
Macronutrients: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins. Micronutrients: vitamins, minerals.
What have been some of the links between carbohydrate intake and risk of disease?
Consumption of cereal foods and wholegrains is associated with a reduced risk of CVD, type 2 diabetes, weight gain, and colorectal cancer (with high fibre)
What are the three common monosaccharides found in the diet?
glucose, galactose, and fructose.
What are the three common disaccharides found in the diet and of what monosaccharides is each composed of?
maltose (2glucose); lactose (glucose+galactose); sucrose (fructose+glucose)
What have been some of the links between fat intake and risk of disease?
Saturated fat is the strongest dietary determinant of plasmaLDL, and replacing with polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat is associated with improved blood lipids.
What is the difference between saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fats?
saturated - no double bonds; monounsaturated - one double bond (olive oil); polyunsaturated - several double bonds (vegetable oil)
beriberi is due to deficiency of which vitamin?
pellagra is due to deficiency of which vitamin?
pernicious anemia is due to deficiency of which vitamin?
scurvy is due to deficiency of which vitamin?
ricket is due to deficiency of which vitamin?
Which vitamin plays an important role in neural tube formation?
vitamin B9 (folate)
What proportion of Americans are currently obese?
What is body mass index (BMI) a measure of and how is it related to mortality rate?
BMI is kg/m2. There is increased mortality rate in both low BMA (15) and high BMI (30) to that of normal BMI (25), and mortality rate of those with a BMI approaching 35 is nearly 1.5-2 times that of normal BMI.
Discuss the debate of the causes of the obesity epidemic.
Debate as to primary cause lies on the energy intake (macronutrient) or energy expenditure side of the energy balance equation. The obesogenic environment is enhanced by food intake factors such as availability, low cost, high energy density, portion distortion of foods as well as activity factors such as labour saving devices, sedentary travel, pastimes and work. Genetics helps to explain the weight variation between individuals, such as the FTO gene, homozygotes of which have an increased risk of obesity, common in European populations.
What are some of the consequences of obesity? (i.e. increased disease risks?
pulmonary disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, gall bladder disease, gynaecological abnormalities, osteoarthritis, gout, cancer, coronary artery disease, hypertension, stroke, cataracts.