0408 - Principles of Innate Immunology - VY Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 0408 - Principles of Innate Immunology - VY Deck (29):

Which immune system is characterised by specificity inherited in the genome?

Innate immunity


Which immune system is characterised by an immediate trigger response and which is characterised by a delayed, signal response.

Innate immunity = immediate response. Adaptive immunity = signal response


Which immune system recognizes broad classes of pathogens and which recognizes specific types of pathogens

Innate immunity = broad classes of pathogens. Adaptive immunity = specific types of pathogens


Which immune system is able to discriminate between closely related molecular structures

Adaptive immune system


Which immune system is encoded in multiple gene segments

Adaptive immune system


Describe some of the barriers of the innate immune system

Epithelial barriers are the first line of define: skin, epithelial cells on gut, lungs and eyes/nose. Other physical barriers include mucus (lungs,nose,throat). Fatty acids, antibacterial peptides and enzymes (stomach,etc)


What are the 2 broad categories of viruses that cause disease in humans (think molecular level)

DNA (e.g. parvovirus, hperpesvirus) and RNA viruses (e.g.retroviruses, coronaviruses)


What are macrophages? Describe their general role

Macrophages are phagocytes produced from monocytes. Roles:• Phagocytosis - engulf and then digest, cellular debris and pathogens• Anitgen presenting cell- display antigens with MHC• Rounding other cells – release cytokines which attract neutrophils


Where do you find macrophages?

Damaged tissues – monocytes enter damaged tissue and change to macrophages


What are neutrophils? Describe their general role

Neutrophils are white blood cells formed from bone marrow. Role• Phagocytosis - engulf and then digest, cellular debris and pathogens


Where do you find neutrophils

Circulation – floating in the plasma of systemic circulation


What are dendritic cells? Describe their general role

Dendritic cells are specilized antigen-presenting cells. Their main function is to process antigen material and present it on the cell surface to the T and B cells


Where do you find dendritic cells

Lymph nodes. Dendritic cells are present in external tissues. Once activated they move to lymph nodes


What are eosinophils and mast cells? Describe their general role

Eosinophils and Mast cells are both components of plasma what are involved in the activation of an allergy response. Eosinophils are involved in protection against anti-body coated parasites and mast cells contain heparin and histamine


Where do you find Eosinophils and Mast cells

Systemic circulation – floating in plasma


What are natural killer cells? Describe their general role

NK cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system. They protect us from infected cells and tumours by detecting MHC presented on infected cell surfaces, triggering cytokine release, causing lysis or apoptosis.


Where do you find natural killer cells

NK cells are found in the lymphatic system


Name the 2 (professional) antigen presenting cells in the innate immune system

Dendritic cells and macrophages


What are pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)

PAMPs are molecules associated with groups of pathogens. PAMPs are proteins, nucleic acids or lipids which we don’t have, or which have modifications to them that make them dissimilar to ours


What are the 4 main types of recognition receptors

TLRs (toll-like receptors), C-type lectin receptors, NLRs (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain receptors) and RLRs (RIG-I like receptors)


Which of the 2 types of receptors are found in the cell surface and which are found in the cytosol?

Surface= TLRs and C-type lectin receptorsCytosol= NLRs and RLRs


Which 2 types of receptors recognize PAMPs and DAMPs

TLRs and NLRs


What are damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs)

DAMPs are molecules released by stressed cells undergoing necrosis that act as danger signals to promote and exacerbate the inflammatory response


Describe the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs)

TLRs are cell surface protein receptors responsible for defence against microbial infection. They recognize PAMPs and DAMPs and initiate the signal cascade to activate proinflammatory cytokines


Describe the role of C-type lectin receptors (CLRs)

CLRs are cell surface protein receptors the recognize microbial polysacharaides. They bind to carbohydrates released/attached to pathogens and activate the signal cascade to activate proinflammatory cytokines


Describe the role of NLRs (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain receptors) ?

NLRs are cytosolic protein receptors that recognize peptidoglycans in bacterial walls. They detect intracellular PAMPs and DAMPs and cooperate with TLRs to regulate inflammatory and apoptosis response


Describe the role of RLRs (RIG-I-Like Receptors) ?

RLRs are cytosolic protein receptors that recognize intracellular virus replication. They sense double stranded RNA, an intermediate in virus replication and produce interferons in infected cells.


List the 3 pathways compliment proteins use to converge on activation of C3 convertase

Classical, alternative and lectin pathway


What are the 2 activated forms of C3 and what is each form responsible for ?

C3a= enhancing inflammation. C3b = opsonization (promote macrophage phagocytosis) and initiating the membrane attack complex (lysis)

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