Flashcards in 0409 - Intro to Immunology - BX Deck (20):
Name the 3 components of the immune system (think broad)
organs and tissuescellsmolecules
Name the two types of lymphoid organs and their constituents
Primary: Thymus, Bone MarrowSecondary: Lymph nodes,Tonsils,Spleen,Lymphatic Vessels,Mucosal Associated Lymphoid Tissue
What is the distinction between primary and secondary lymphoid organs?
Primary: where immune cells are producedSecondary: areas where immune interactions are carried out
What are lymphocytes? Name the 3 types.
lymphocytes are immune cells (granulocytes) founds in lymph nodesT-cell - matures in thymusB-cell - matures in bone marrowNK-cell - multiple locations Lymphocytes relocate to lymph nodes upon maturation.
Where are blood cells created? What are they created by and what 3 types of cells are created?
Created in the bone marrow, by PHSC (pleuripotent hematopoietic stem cells)3 types:common lymphoid progenitor (lymphocytes)common myeloid progenitor (granulocytes, platelets and RBCs) immature dendritic cells (unknown origin)
What is a lymph node? what is the importance?
secondary lymphoid organ acts as an immune organ to constantly check incoming fluids for foreign material (antigens). contains lymphocytes and macrophages
What is the spleen? What is its importance?
secondary lymphoid organbreaks down old RBCscontains T and B cellscollects antigens from blood
what are peyer's patches?
analogous structure to lymph nodes, but located in the bowelscontains segregated B and T cell compartments (just like lymph nodes)
what is the lymphatic system?
Lymph vessels + nodesnot in the CNS, eyes, ears, skin, or bone + cartilagefollow course of veins (developmentally similar)fluid movement driven by muscle contractioncontains valve systemimportant for lipid metabolism
What are the cellular components of the innate response?
Innate immunity involve cells that are not lymphocytesgranulocytes (neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils)mast cellsmacrophagesNK cells Dendritic cells
Describe features of the innate response. (4)
as a first line of defense, it is immediateit does not have memory (therefore not graded in response)it is the same for all humans (preserved from evolution)specific molecules and patterns are recognized (ex. lipopolysaccarides in bacteria, but not the species of bacterium)
Describe features of the adaptive response (4)
only present in higher vertebratesunique receptors on lymphocytes that recognize unique antigenshas memory (therefore graded in response), but slowerT and B cells are uniquely different in each person.
How does the innate reponse work?
Toll-like receptors on cells present foreign molecules on cells surface(carried out by endosomes in cells)innate response molescules (DAMP and PAMP) will trigger innate response (pattern recognition of immune cells)
What is an antigen?
Antigen is anything that is recognized by the immune cells could also be a change in appearance of host cells
What are APC's?
APC's are antigen presenting cellsThey digest foreign material and present broken down molecules as antigens on cell surfaceuses MHC-II complex (complements CD-4)(all other cells have MHC-I, using CD-8)macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells are involved
Which two type of cells participate in phagocytosis?
macrophages and neutrophils
How are immune cells activated once an antigen is recognized?
Dendritic cells (APC) becomes activated once a T-cell binds to the antigen. T-cell also gets activated (co-activation)T-cells can also recognize B-cell antigens, and once bound, T-cells will also activate B-cells. (both describe activation to achieve effector function)
What are lymphocytes? What cells are involved, what do they do?
lymphocytes are the T, B, and NK cells.they are part of the adaptive responseB cell: APC, detects and displays 3D structures (antigens)humoral immunityT cell: recognize antigens on APCs using the MHC complexescellular immunityNOTE: (NK cells are a bit of both)
What are cytokines?
low molecular weight proteinssignal molecules that induce movement of immune cellsuse cytokine receptorsactivates both innate and adaptive responses