08 Nationalist Revolutions Sweep the West, 1789–1900 Flashcards Preview

KICS W2 > 08 Nationalist Revolutions Sweep the West, 1789–1900 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 08 Nationalist Revolutions Sweep the West, 1789–1900 Deck (29):
1

peninsulare

in Spanish colonial society, colonists who were born in Spain

2

creole

in Spanish colonial society, colonists who were born in Latin America to Spanish parents

3

mulatto

persons of mixed European and African ancestry

4

Simón Bolívar

leader of the Venezuelan independence movement

5

José de San Martín

leader who helped win independence for Chile and Argentina

6

Miguel Hidalgo

priest who began the revolt against Spanish rule in Mexico

7

José María Morelos

leader of the Mexican revolt after Hildalgo was defeated

8

conservatives

in the first half of the 19th century, those Europeans—mainly wealthy landowners and nobles—who wanted to preserve the traditional monarchies of Europe

9

liberals

in the first half of the 19th century, those Europeans—mainly middle-class business leaders and merchants—who wanted to give more political power to elected parliaments

10

radicals

in the first half of the 19th century, those Europeans who favored drastic change to extend democracy to all people

11

nationalism

the belief that people should be loyal mainly to their nation—that is, to the people with whom they share a culture and history—rather than to a king or empire

12

nation-state

an independent geopolitical unit of people having a common culture and identity

13

Balkans

the region of southeastern Europe now occupied by Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, the European part of Turkey, and the former republics of Yugoslavia

14

Louis-Napoleon

winner of the presidential election in France in 1848; later emperor

15

Alexander II

ruler of Russia who freed the serfs

16

Russification

the process of forcing Russian culture on all ethnic groups in the Russian Empire

17

Camillo di Cavour

prime minister who unified northern Italy

18

Giuseppe Garibaldi

leader of the Red Shirts who won control over parts of southern Italy

19

Junker

wealthy German landholders

20

Otto von Bismarck

leader who worked to expand Prussia

21

realpolitik

the practice of tough power politics without room for idealism

22

kaiser

a German emperor (from the Roman title Caesar)

23

romanticism

an early-19th-century movement in art and thought, which focused on emotion and nature rather than reason and society

24

realism

a 19th-century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be

25

impressionism

a movement in 19th-century painting, in which artists reacted against realism by seeking to convey their impressions of subjects or moments in time

26

8.1 How was the Haitian Revolution different from revolutions in the rest of Latin America?

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8.2 Why did France’s Third Republic fail?

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8.3 What advantages did Prussia have in leading the German states to unify?

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8.4 What characteristics did photography have that made it the art of the industrial age?

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