What is a common parasitic infection of the bladder?
People with chronic pyelonephritis produce a large volume of hypotonic urine - why?
Urethral obstruction is more common in (males/females).
Why can infection cause glomerulonephritis?
Triggers autoimmune response
Why are females more likely to develop UTIs than males?
SHORTER, WIDER urethra
What kind of necrosis is seen in the kidney in TB pyelonephritis?
What type of inflammation is seen?
How can you diagnose it on biopsy?
Chronic granulomatous inflammation
ZN stain for acid-fast bacilli
What are common causes of hydronephrosis?
Same as obstruction
plus vesico-ureteric reflux
What are the symptoms of TB pyelonephritis?
What organisms can cause cystitis?
What is a congenital disease which can cause urethral obstruction?
Posterior urethral valves
What is a classic renal sign of TB pyelonephritis?
Pus in urine
What are the two broad categories of nephritis?
What is seen on biopsy of someone with acute pyelonephritis?
Which muscle can hypertrophy to cause urinary tract obstruction?
How does tuberculosis spread?
What do glomeruli look like chronic pyelonephritis?
How can pyelonephritis be acquired?
Schistosomiasis infection of the bladder predisposes you to which disease?
Squamous cell carcinoma
Does acute urinary tract obstruction cause hydronephrosis?
No, not enough time for dilatation (which is the definition of it)
What are some common causes of urinary tract obstruction?
Compression - malignancy, prostate
What is the appearance of the
a) renal cortex
in chronic pyelonephritis?
What is cystitis?
Bacterial inflammation of the bladder
Apart from urinary tract obstruction, what other disease can cause hydronephrosis?
What is the commonest cause of pyelonephritis?
E. coli infection
What is pyelonephrosis usually secondary to?
Hydronephrosis (> secondary infection of a kidney filled with static fluid)
What is seen on biopsy of someone with chronic pyelonephritis?
What structural changes occur in a bladder which is distally obstructed?
Thickening of bladder wall
What is cystitis cystica?
Protrusion of cysts into lumen of bladder, seen in cystitis
What is infection of the testicle called?
What disease does untreated urinary tract obstruction cause?