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Renal Week 3 2017/18 > 1: Pathology 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1: Pathology 1 Deck (42)
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1

What is a common parasitic infection of the bladder?

Schistosomiasis

2

People with chronic pyelonephritis produce a large volume of hypotonic urine - why?

Renal failure

3

Urethral obstruction is more common in (males/females).

males

4

Why can infection cause glomerulonephritis?

Triggers autoimmune response

5

Why are females more likely to develop UTIs than males?

SHORTER, WIDER urethra

6

What kind of necrosis is seen in the kidney in TB pyelonephritis?

What type of inflammation is seen?

How can you diagnose it on biopsy?

Caseous necrosis

Chronic granulomatous inflammation

ZN stain for acid-fast bacilli

7

What are common causes of hydronephrosis?

Same as obstruction

plus vesico-ureteric reflux

8

What are the symptoms of TB pyelonephritis?

Weight loss

Fever

Loin pain

Dysuria

9

What organisms can cause cystitis?

E. coli

Klebsiella

Proteus

Pseudomonas

10

What is a congenital disease which can cause urethral obstruction?

Posterior urethral valves

11

What is a classic renal sign of TB pyelonephritis?

Sterile pyuria

Pus in urine

12

What are the two broad categories of nephritis?

Glomerulonephritis

Pyelonephritis

13

What is seen on biopsy of someone with acute pyelonephritis?

Neutrophils

14

Which muscle can hypertrophy to cause urinary tract obstruction?

Detrusor

15

How does tuberculosis spread?

Haematogenously

16

What do glomeruli look like chronic pyelonephritis?

Diffuse sclerosis

17

How can pyelonephritis be acquired?

UTI

Sepsis

Post-surgery

18

Schistosomiasis infection of the bladder predisposes you to which disease?

Squamous cell carcinoma

19

Does acute urinary tract obstruction cause hydronephrosis?

No, not enough time for dilatation (which is the definition of it)

20

What are some common causes of urinary tract obstruction?

Calculi

Compression - malignancy, prostate

Strictures

21

What is the appearance of the

a) renal cortex

b) glomeruli

in chronic pyelonephritis?

a) Scarred

b) Sclerosis

22

What is cystitis?

Bacterial inflammation of the bladder

23

Apart from urinary tract obstruction, what other disease can cause hydronephrosis?

Vesico-ureteric reflux

24

What is the commonest cause of pyelonephritis?

E. coli infection

25

What is pyelonephrosis usually secondary to?

Pyelonephritis

Hydronephrosis (> secondary infection of a kidney filled with static fluid)

26

What is seen on biopsy of someone with chronic pyelonephritis?

Cortical scarring

27

What structural changes occur in a bladder which is distally obstructed?

Detrusor hypertrophy

Thickening of bladder wall

Diverticulae

28

What is cystitis cystica?

Protrusion of cysts into lumen of bladder, seen in cystitis

29

What is infection of the testicle called?

Orchitis

30

What disease does untreated urinary tract obstruction cause?

Hydronephrosis