Which tumours can be found in the renal pelvis?
What is an embryonic renal tumour found in children?
What incidental scan often picks up renal tumours?
What benign tumour is extremely common?
What scans are used to view renal cysts?
When may benign renal cysts be treated?
Symptomatic - if they are causing pain
What are benign tumours associated with tuberous sclerosis?
What are angiomyolipomas made up of?
Blood vessels and fat
What is the main investigation for angiomyolipomas?
Fat content is very distinctive on CT
What is a life-threatening complication of angiomyolipomas?
How are ruptured angiomyolipomas treated?
What benign renal tumour presents with a distinctive central scar?
a) renal cysts
look like on imaging?
a) Fluid filled
c) Centrally scarred
What is the classic triad of symptoms seen in malignant renal tumours?
What paraneoplastic symptoms are seen alongside RCC?
(Males / females) tend to get RCC.
What are the two appearances of RCC?
What genetic syndrome causes loads of cysts in different organs?
Von-Hippel Lindau syndrome
What is the mode of inheritance of VHL syndrome?
In a young person with renal cell carcinoma, suspect what?
Von Hippel Lindau syndrome
How is RCC investigated?
CT scan +/- contrast
Why do renal tumours cause bleeding?
Angiogenesis produces crap vessels
What staging system is used for RCC?
Where do RCCs tend to spread?
Depending on the stage of the tumour, how is RCC treated?
Full nephrectomy (adrenal left unless it is affected) for advanced tumours
Partial nephrectomy for local tumours
Thermal ablation for tiny tumours or patients with one kidney or patients who can't withstand surgery
How are small renal masses usually picked up?
Incidental finding on USS
Many surgeries are carried out for renal tumours which turn out to be ___.
How are patients with metastatic renal cancer managed?
+/- adjuvant drugs like tyrosine kinase inhibitors
As the stage of a cancer increases, its prognosis ___.
What is the most common pre-malignant lesion of the penis?
Balanitis xerotica obliterans