9: Urological malignancies Flashcards Preview

Renal Week 3 2017/18 > 9: Urological malignancies > Flashcards

Flashcards in 9: Urological malignancies Deck (57)
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1

Which tumours can be found in the renal pelvis?

TCC (urothelium)

2

What is an embryonic renal tumour found in children?

Nephroblastoma

3

What incidental scan often picks up renal tumours?

Ultrasound

4

What benign tumour is extremely common?

Renal cysts

5

What scans are used to view renal cysts?

Ultrasound

CT scan

6

When may benign renal cysts be treated?

Symptomatic - if they are causing pain

7

What are benign tumours associated with tuberous sclerosis?

Angiomyolipomas

8

What are angiomyolipomas made up of?

Blood vessels and fat

9

What is the main investigation for angiomyolipomas?

Why?

CT

Fat content is very distinctive on CT

10

What is a life-threatening complication of angiomyolipomas?

Haemorrhage

11

How are ruptured angiomyolipomas treated?

Embolisation

12

What benign renal tumour presents with a distinctive central scar?

Oncocytoma

13

What do

a) renal cysts

b) angiomyolipomas

c) oncocytomas

look like on imaging?

a) Fluid filled

b) Fatty

c) Centrally scarred

14

What is the classic triad of symptoms seen in malignant renal tumours?

Loin pain

Abdominal mass

Haematuria

15

What paraneoplastic symptoms are seen alongside RCC?

Weight loss

Anaemia

Hypertension

Hypercalcaemia

16

(Males / females) tend to get RCC.

Males

17

What are the two appearances of RCC?

Clear cell

Papillary

18

What genetic syndrome causes loads of cysts in different organs?

Von-Hippel Lindau syndrome

19

What is the mode of inheritance of VHL syndrome?

Autosomal dominant

20

In a young person with renal cell carcinoma, suspect what?

Von Hippel Lindau syndrome

21

How is RCC investigated?

Ultrasound

CT scan +/- contrast

Renal biopsy

22

Why do renal tumours cause bleeding?

Angiogenesis produces crap vessels

23

What staging system is used for RCC?

Robson score

24

Where do RCCs tend to spread?

Renal veins

25

Depending on the stage of the tumour, how is RCC treated?

Full nephrectomy (adrenal left unless it is affected) for advanced tumours

Partial nephrectomy for local tumours

Thermal ablation for tiny tumours or patients with one kidney or patients who can't withstand surgery

 

26

How are small renal masses usually picked up?

Incidental finding on USS

27

Many surgeries are carried out for renal tumours which turn out to be ___.

benign

28

How are patients with metastatic renal cancer managed?

Supportively

+/- adjuvant drugs like tyrosine kinase inhibitors

29

As the stage of a cancer increases, its prognosis ___.

decreases

30

What is the most common pre-malignant lesion of the penis?

Balanitis xerotica obliterans