7: Bladder outflow obstruction Flashcards Preview

Renal Week 3 2017/18 > 7: Bladder outflow obstruction > Flashcards

Flashcards in 7: Bladder outflow obstruction Deck (26)
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1

Which muscles make up the detrusor of the bladder?

Inner LONGITUDINAL muscle

Outer CIRCULAR muscle

External LONGITUDINAL muscle

2

What is found between the urothelium and the detrusor muscles of the bladder?

Lamina propria

nerves, connective tissue, blood vessels

3

What are bladder causes of obstruction?

Stenosis

Renal calculus

Tumour

4

What are the general causes of bladder outlet obstruction in males and females?

Compression - e.g tumour

Stones

Stricture

5

What enlarges to cause obstruction of the posterior urethra in males?

Prostate gland

either BPH or prostate cancer

6

What is phimosis?

Inability to retract the foreskin which can cause obstruction in men

7

What are vaginal causes of bladder outlet obstruction?

Atrophy

Prolapse

Cysts

8

Obstruction is more common in (males / females).

males

9

Overactivity of the bladder causes which symptoms?

Is it more common in men or women?

Increased frequency

Urgency

Females

10

What QOL score is filled out by male patients with prostate problems?

International prostate symptom score

11

Which causes of haematuria in men are suggested by

a) initial

b) mixed

c) terminal

blood in the stream?

a) Urethral

b) Bladder

c) Highly specific for prostate

12

What is hypospadias?

External urethral orifice is found below the glans:

so anywhere between the glans and the pubic symphysis

13

In males presenting with obstruction, what should be examined?

Abdomen

Rectum

Penis

14

In females presenting with obstruction, what should be examined?

Abdomen

Rectum

Vagina

15

What is a menopause-related cause of obstruction in females?

Urethral stenosis

16

What investigations should be done for someone presenting with obstruction?

Urinalysis, urine culture

Imaging - USS or CT (with contrast if you suspect stones)

17

What are tests used to investigate and diagnose suspected prostate disease in men?

PSA (screening test in all men aged over 50)

TRUS - transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy

18

What is an emergency complication of obstruction?

Acute urine retention

19

If you retain large volumes of urine for a prolonged period of tme, what happens to the bladder?

Becomes unresponsive to nerve impulses - low compliance

Diverticulae - which stones can lodge in

20

What is a complication of obstruction which affects the kidneys and causes renal failure if untreated?

Hydronephrosis

21

People with urine retention due to obstruction are more likely to develop ___ and ___ ___.

infections

renal calculi

22

Which type of incontinence is caused by obstruction?

Overflow incontinence

23

How does obstruction cause epididymo-orchitis?

Passage of infection through vas deferens

24

Does overflow incontinence empty the bladder?

No

25

How is BPH treated?

Alpha blockers

Finasteride (5α-reductase inhibitor)

Surgery

26

How are renal calculi treated?

Analgesia (diclofenac +/- opiates)

Alpha blockers and hope for spontaneous passage for small stones

Surgical fragmentation / removal for big stones