8: Prostate and bladder cancer Flashcards Preview

Renal Week 3 2017/18 > 8: Prostate and bladder cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in 8: Prostate and bladder cancer Deck (34)
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1

Where is the prostate gland found in relation to the bladder?

Neck of the bladder

2

What part of the urethra is surrounded by the prostate gland?

Prostatic urethra

3

What are zones of the prostate?

Central zone - where benign cancers arise

Peripheral zone - where malignant cancers arise

 

4

From which zones of the prostate do

a) BPH

b) prostate cancer

develop?

a) Transitional zone

b) Peripheral zones

5

What is the most common cancer found in men in the UK?

Prostate cancer

6

What are the investigations for prostate cancer?

PR exam - hard, full prostate

PSA - blood test, marker for prostate activity

Biopsy

 

7

Prostate cancers are either well or poorly ___ on biopsy.

differentiated

poorly differentiated is bad

8

What is unique about the appearance of prostate cancer?

Multiple different morphologies can be found in the same cancer

9

Which system is used to grade prostate cancer?

Gleason's scoring

adding together the two most frequent patterns to get a score out of 10

10

In terms of staging, T1 describes __-__ cancers.

non-palpable

so detected by PSA

11

What is a T2 prostate cancer?

Palpable

12

What is a T3+ prostate cancer?

Found outside the prostate

13

Where does prostate cancer most commonly spread?

Bone

Lymph nodes

14

Metastatic prostate cancer spreads where?

Bones

Lymph nodes

15

What are two investigations used to check for prostate cancer spread?

Bone scan

MRI scan - to see if it has spread outwith the capsule

16

Summarise the investigations for

a) localised

b) metastatic

prostate cancer.

a) PR exam, PSA, biopsy (giving Gleason score)

b) Bone scan, MRI

17

Depending on investigation results, prostate cancer is given a ___ of invasion.

risk

18

How is low-risk, localised prostate cancer managed?

Monitoring

19

How is intermediate to high risk, localised prostate cancer treated?

Prostatectomy - open or laparoscopic

Radiotherapy

20

What is a possible side effect of prostate surgery in men?

Infertility

21

Which hormone stimulates the prostate gland and is suppressed in the treatment of locally advanced disease?

Testosterone

LHRH injections, androgen antagonists

22

Which hormone treatments slow the progression of prostate cancer?

LHRH injections

Anti-androgens

23

Which type of epithelium lines the bladder?

Transitional epithelium, or urothelium

24

What are the risk factors for transitional cell carcinoma?

Age > 40

PMX of renal disease

Smoking - the main one

Exposure to chemicals - dyes, rubber

Analgesic drugs

Chronic UTI - schistosomiasis

25

TCC is more common in (men / women).

men

26

What is the main presenting complaint of bladder cancer?

Haematuria

27

How is bladder cancer investigated?

Cystoscopy - to view tumours

CT urogram - to view filling defects

28

What investigation is used to diagnose a bladder cancer?

TURBT

transurethral resection of bladder tumour + biopsy

29

How is bladder cancer staged?

TNM staging based off biopsy

30

Patients with bladder cancer must be monitored for how long?

Lifelong monitoring