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Renal Week 3 2017/18 > 5: Pathology 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 5: Pathology 2 Deck (47)
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1

What is agenesis of the kidneys?

Complete failure of one or both kidneys to develop

2

Hypoplasia describes ___ organs with (normal / abnormal) development.

smaller

normal development

3

Which poles of the kidneys usually fuse to cause horseshoe kidney?

Inferior poles

4

Does horseshoe kidney affect renal function?

Usually not

but can obstruct ureters

5

Congenital abnormalities of the kidney predispose you to ___.

UTIs

6

What neurological presentation is associated with renal agenesis?

Oligohydramnios

Low volume of amniotic fluid in the placenta

7

What abnormal facial appearance is associated with oligohydramnios?

Which congenital renal disorder causes it?

Potter's facies - low set ears, small jaw, flattened tip of the nose

Renal agenesis

8

What type of kidney disease, with a characteristic appearance, is very common?

Cystic kidney disease

9

What can cysts contain?

Serous fluid

10

Why may cystic kidney disease cause abdominal pain?

Ruptured cysts

11

What are the two types of polycystic kidney disease and how are they inherited?

a) Autosomal dominant PKD - adults, PKD1 on chromosome 16

b) Autosomal recessive PKD - kids, PKDH1, chromosome 6

12

Is polycystic kidney disease unilateral or bilateral?

Bilateral

13

What happens to the kidneys in

a) ADPKD

b) ARPKD?

a) Hyperplasia, damage to tubules

b) Hypoplasia, damage to collecting ducts, fibrosis

14

What is a characteristic feature of ARPKD?

Hypoplasia due to fibrosis

15

What are the symptoms of polycystic kidney disease?

Haematuria

Polyuria

Chronic loin pain

Hypertension

 

 

16

Because ADPKD causes hyperplasia, what may be seen on examination?

Abdominal mass

17

What neuro presentation is associated with ADPKD?

Subarachnoid haemorrhage

18

What diseases are associated with

a) ADPKD

b) ARPKD?

a) Loads - subarachnoid haemorrhage, valve disease, diverticulae and hernia

b) Fibrosis of kidneys

19

What are the most common benign kidney tumours?

Fibromas

20

What do fibromas look like?

White

Found in renal medulla

21

What do adenomas look like?

Where in the kidneys are they found?

Yellow

Adrenal cortex

22

What benign kidney tumours are found in tuberous sclerosis?

Angiomyolipoma

blood vessels, muscles and fat

23

Which benign kidney tumours produce renin?

What systemic disease can this cause?

Juxtaglomerular cell tumours

Secondary hypertension

24

What is the commonest malignant kidney tumour in children?

Nephroblastoma

arises from embryological tissue

25

What is the commonest malignant kidney tumour found in adults?

Renal cell carcinoma

26

(Men / women) are at greater risk of RCC.

Men

27

What are the symptoms of RCC?

Abdomnal mass

Haematuria

Loin pain

Weight loss, anorexia, fever, fatigue

28

What is polycythaemia?

Increased number of red cells

29

Why do patients with RCC develop

a) polycythaemia

b) hypercalcaemia?

a) Overproduction of EPO

b) Overproduction of calcitriol (activated Vitamin D)

30

Where do RCCs tend to be found?

Renal cortex