6: Haematuria Flashcards Preview

Renal Week 3 2017/18 > 6: Haematuria > Flashcards

Flashcards in 6: Haematuria Deck (44)
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1

Haematuria is ___ ml of blood in 100ml of urine.

1ml

2

Which organs may haematuria be caused by?

Kidneys

Ureters

Bladder

Urethra

3

What are two types of bleeding related to haematuria in men and women?

Haematospermia

PV bleeding

4

Which disease can cause haematospermia?

Prostate cancer

5

What are the two types of haematuria?

Visible

Non-visible

6

What is another name for visible haematuria?

Frank haematuria

7

How may non-visible haematuria be detected?

Urinalysis

Urine microscopy

8

What is the definition of microscopic haematuria?

3+ RBCs in 3 different urine samples

9

The biggest concern re: cause of haematuria should be ___.

cancer

10

What are risk factors for bladder cancer?

Age > 40

PMX of renal/urological problems

Smoking

Exposure to dyes

Analgesia abuse

11

What can cause haematuria?

Inflammation

UTI

Renal calculi

Malignancy

Trauma

12

Why do tumours bleed?

Angiogenesis - crappy blood vessels which rupture easily

Invasion - damaging existing blood vessels

13

___ of the urinary tract often present with haematuria.

Tumours

14

What are other symptoms of renal/urological cancers apart from haematuria?

Loin pain or renal colic

Obstruction - frequency, hesitancy, urgency...

Fever, WL, fatigue, anorexia

15

Prostate cancer causes haemat___.

haematospermia

NOT haematuria

16

What therapy for prostate cancer can cause haematuria?

Radiotherapy

17

What ruptures the kidneys to cause haematuria?

Trauma

18

What types of sports can cause haematuria?

Long-distance running

Contact sports

19

Why does heavy exercise cause haematuria?

Systemic sympathetic vasoconstriction may cause hypoxic damage to nephrons

Also: rhabdomyolysis of skeletal muscle

20

Rapid ___ can cause haematuria.

catheterisation

or decathetisation

21

What are some iatrogenic causes of haematuria?

Surgery

22

Which cardiovascular drugs can cause haematuria?

Warfarin

Heparin

Aspirin

anti-coagulants

23

What chemical, found in the urine following skeletal muscle trauma, may mimic haematuria?

Myoglobin

rhabdomyolysis

24

What drug, used to treat TB, can cause orange urine?

Rifampicin

25

Which clotting factors are inhibited by

a) warfarin

b) heparin

c) LMWH?

a) II, VII, IX and Xa

b) IX and Xa

c) Xa

26

What symptoms suggest UTI?

Loin pain

Frequency

Urgency

Dysuria

Haematuria

Constitutional symptoms

27

What renal disease does smoking increase your chances of?

Bladder cancer

28

What does industrial exposure e.g dyes and rubber increase your risk of?

Bladder cancer

29

Which parasitic infection increases your chance of renal cancers?

Schistosomiasis

don't swim in Lake Malawi

30

How is suspected schistosomiasis investigated?

Cystoscopy