Haematuria is ___ ml of blood in 100ml of urine.
Which organs may haematuria be caused by?
What are two types of bleeding related to haematuria in men and women?
Which disease can cause haematospermia?
What are the two types of haematuria?
What is another name for visible haematuria?
How may non-visible haematuria be detected?
What is the definition of microscopic haematuria?
3+ RBCs in 3 different urine samples
The biggest concern re: cause of haematuria should be ___.
What are risk factors for bladder cancer?
Age > 40
PMX of renal/urological problems
Exposure to dyes
What can cause haematuria?
Why do tumours bleed?
Angiogenesis - crappy blood vessels which rupture easily
Invasion - damaging existing blood vessels
___ of the urinary tract often present with haematuria.
What are other symptoms of renal/urological cancers apart from haematuria?
Loin pain or renal colic
Obstruction - frequency, hesitancy, urgency...
Fever, WL, fatigue, anorexia
Prostate cancer causes haemat___.
What therapy for prostate cancer can cause haematuria?
What ruptures the kidneys to cause haematuria?
What types of sports can cause haematuria?
Why does heavy exercise cause haematuria?
Systemic sympathetic vasoconstriction may cause hypoxic damage to nephrons
Also: rhabdomyolysis of skeletal muscle
Rapid ___ can cause haematuria.
What are some iatrogenic causes of haematuria?
Which cardiovascular drugs can cause haematuria?
What chemical, found in the urine following skeletal muscle trauma, may mimic haematuria?
What drug, used to treat TB, can cause orange urine?
Which clotting factors are inhibited by
a) II, VII, IX and Xa
b) IX and Xa
What symptoms suggest UTI?
What renal disease does smoking increase your chances of?
What does industrial exposure e.g dyes and rubber increase your risk of?
Which parasitic infection increases your chance of renal cancers?
don't swim in Lake Malawi
How is suspected schistosomiasis investigated?