What is the normal pH of the blood?
Which blood vessels have a lower pH?
What is the normal blood concentration of bicarbonate ions?
22 - 28
sits around 25
What is the normal partial pressure of CO2 in the blood?
What needs to be brought back to normal to
a) compensate for
an acid-base imbalance?
b) pH, [HCO3-], pCO2
What are compensation and correction of an acid-base disturbance?
Compensation - bringing pH back to normal
Correction - bringing pH, [HCO3-] and pCO2
What are the four types of acid-base imbalance?
Metabolic acidosis and alkalosis
Respiratory acidosis and alkalosis
What solutions are responsible for correcting short-term changes in pH?
What component of blood acts as a buffer?
unoxygenated blood has a higher affinity for H+ than oxygenated blood
What happens when buffers run out?
Kidney replaces them
ph = pk + log(kidneys/lungs)
Which organs regulate blood concentration of
What are the normal ranges of concs. for
a) 7.35 - 7.45 (normal is 7.4)
b) 22 - 28 (normal is 25)
What general group of diseases causes CO2 retention?
CO2 retention causes an (increase / decrease) in the concentrations of which ions?
shifts equilibrium to the right and causes acidosis
Can buffer solutions buffer themselves?
So an increase in CO2 causes both H+ and HCO3 to increase, but HCO3 doesn't compensate
When is respiratory acidosis
a) High CO2, normal pH
b) High CO2, low pH
Which system compensates for respiratory acidosis?
What drives bicarbonate reabsorption by the kidneys?
H+ secretion by the kidneys
How much bicarbonate is reabsorbed by the kidneys in metabolic acidosis?
All of it
What happens to H+ ions after they are excreted into the renal tubules to drive HCO3- reabsorption?
Excreted in urine as titratable acid and ammonium
What increases as a result of renal compensation for metabolic acidosis?
and therefore pH increase
After the kidneys have compensated for a metabolic acidosis, how do you correct it?
Restore normal ventilation
What are some causes of respiratory alkalosis?
High altitude (conc of oxygen breathed in decreases, rate of body's removal of CO2 stays the same --> alkalosis)
What is removed excessively in respiratory alkalosis?
What happens as a result of excessive CO2 removal in respiratory alkalosis?
H+ and HCO3- decrease
CO2 starts to increase
equilibrium shifts to the left
What system compensates for respiratory alkalosis?
What happens to H+ secretion in respiratory alkalosis?
Decreases, as no CO2 to drive it
What happens to bicarbonate reabsorption in metabolic alkalosis?
As H+ isn't being secreted to drive it
In uncompensated respiratory alkalosis, the urine turns ___.