11: Pathology 3 Flashcards Preview

Renal Week 3 2017/18 > 11: Pathology 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 11: Pathology 3 Deck (40)
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1

What names are given to SCC-in-situ of the penis?

Erythroplasia of Queryat (glans and shaft)

Bowen's disease (everything else)

2

What does SCC-in-situ of the penis look like?

Red, velvety plaque

3

SCC occurs in men who are ___.

uncircumcised

4

What virus is associated with SCC of the penis?

HPV type 16

5

Is SCC of the penis common in the UK?

No

6

What are risk factors for penile SCC?

Aged 20 - 35

Uncircumcised

HPV type 16

Poor hygiene

 

7

What is a common disorder affecting men over the age of 50?

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)

8

What causes BPH?

Imbalance between testosterone (decreases) and oestrogen (excess) levels 

9

What urinary problems does BPH cause?

Urine retention

Hesitancy

Slow flow

Overflow incontinence

10

What group of symptoms are collectively called prostatism?

Hesitancy

Poor flow

Overflow incontinence

Urine retention

11

Hesitancy, slow flow and incontinence are collectively called ___.

prostatism

12

What happens to the bladder muscle in BPH?

Hypertrophy

Forms diverticulae (which stones can lodge in)

13

What are complications caused by the obstruction in BPH?

Hydronephrosis

UTI

14

How is BPH managed?

Alpha blockers

5alpha reductase inhibitors (finasteride)

Surgery

15

Does BPH lead to prostate cancer?

Not for sure

But people who develop prostate cancer CAN have BPH

16

What does BPH look like on biopsy?

Stromal and glandular hypertrophy

17

What is the most common cancer in men in the UK?

Prostate cancer

18

When do men tend to get prostate cancer?

50+

19

People with a ___ history of prostate cancer are more likely to develop it.

family history

20

Which local organs can prostate cancer spread to?

Urethra

Bladder

Rectum

21

What is prostate cancer notorious for spreading to?

Bone

22

What process does metastatic prostate cancer cause in bone?

Osteosclerosis

whereas most other cancers cause osteolysis

23

What are the investigations for

a) initial

b) suspected metastatic

prostate cancer?

a) PR exam, blood PSA, prostate biopsy

b) CT everything, bone scans

24

Does an elevated PSA mean prostate cancer?

No, lots of other reasons

But if gradually, consistently increasing then probably prostate cancer

25

Which

a) drugs

b) surgery

are used to treat prostate cancer?

a) LHRH agonists, anti-androgen

b) Prostatectomy

26

What is the prognosis of testicular cancer?

Very good

27

What is a big risk factor for testicular cancer?

Undescended testes

28

Is testicular cancer painful?

No, usually presents as PAINLESS TESTICULAR LUMP

29

What is an endocrine symptom associated with testicular cancer?

Gynaechomastia

30

What are two germ cell tumours of the testicle?

Seminoma

Teratoma