1: Physiology and pharmacology of the liver Flashcards Preview

Gastrointestinal Week 6 2016/17 > 1: Physiology and pharmacology of the liver > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1: Physiology and pharmacology of the liver Deck (48)
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1

The liver is involved in the ___ of carbohydrates, fat and protein.

metabolism

2

Where do gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, glycogenesis and the urea cycle take place?

among a million other processes

 

Liver

3

Where are hormones degraded?

Liver

4

Which hormone is converted from its inactive to active form in the liver?

Thyroxine to Triiodothyronine

(T4 > T3)

5

Which vitamin is activated in the liver?

Vitamin D

6

Which three types of molecules does the liver store?

Vitamins

Metal ions (e.g copper and ion)

Glycogen

7

What is a protein marker of liver function?

Albumin

8

Which molecules, involved in coagulation of blood, are synthesised in the liver?

Factors

9

Albumin is a marker for ___ function.

liver

10

What phagocytic cells are found in the liver and destroy debris and bacteria?

Kupffer cells

11

The liver detoxifies substances found in the ___.

Give two examples.

 

blood

Drugs, alcohol

12

Where is bile produced?

Where is bile stored?

Liver

Gall bladder

13

Through which sphincter is bile released? Where does this sphincter lead?

Sphincter of Oddi

2nd part of the duodenum

14

What event prompts the gall bladder's smooth muscle to contract?

Which signal molecule is involved?

Which parasympathetic nerve is also involved?

Chyme in the duodenum

CCK

Vagus nerve

15

Which signal molecule is released during a meal and prompts the Sphincter of Oddi to open?

CCK

16

Bile is involved in the digestion and absorption of ___.

fat

17

What component of bile can crystalise to form a gall stone?

Cholesterol

18

Which antibody is found in bile?

IgA

19

Which breakdown product of red blood cells is found in bile?

Excess amounts of this product in the blood cause ___.

Bilirubin

jaundice

20

What is cholelithiasis?

Gall stones IN THE GALL BLADDER

21

Where do gall stones most commonly appear?

Gall bladder

Common bile duct

22

What is the most common pathology of the biliary tract?

Cholelithiasis

23

What surgical technique is used to treat symptomatic cholelithiasis?

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy

keyhole surgery to remove the gall bladder.

Why not ERCP? because ERCP can only remove gall stones in the bile duct

24

If cholelithiasis isn't producing symptoms, how may it be treated (instead of cholecystectomy)?

Ursodeoxycholic acid (dissolves the stones)

25

What is biliary colic?

Colicky abdominal pain caused by a gall stone blocking the bile duct

26

Which drugs can be used to relieve pain caused by biliary colic?

Atropine

GTN

 

27

Which process reabsorbs 95% of the bile salts entering the terminal ileum from the duodenum?

Enterohepatic recycling

28

If bile salts aren't reabsorbed by the terminal ileum and returned to the liver, how does the body synthesise it?

Using cholesterol

29

Which drugs can be used to treat hyperlipidaemia and cholestatic jaundice by blocking bile salt reabsorption?

Bile acid sequestrants

30

Name a bile acid sequestrant used to reduce cholesterol levels.

Cole--

colesevelam, colestipol, colestyramine