What microorganism causes hepatitis?
Name the four common causes of hepatitis.
Hepatitis A, B, C, E
Which virus rarely causes hepatitis and is associated with glandular fever?
Name four viruses, other than Hepatitis, which cause viral hepatitis.
Yellow fever virus
Herpes simplex virus
Which virus is spread by the faecal-oral route, causes mild illness and is recovered from quickly?
Hepatitis A has a (short / long) incubation time.
Hepatitis A directly kills the hepatocytes rather than generating a immune response which does so - what is the name for this?
Which virus is spread by blood, sexually and vertically?
Which virus has a long incubation period and is associated by blood contact, sexual contact and in utero?
Hepatitis B cell damage is (cytopathic / autoimmune).
Which virus is spread by blood/sexual contact, has a SHORT incubation time and is much harder to get than Hepatitis B?
Hepatitis (A/B/C) tends to become chronic.
Which immune cell is associated with chronic inflammation seen in hepatitis?
Which substance is stained blue and indicates fibrosis in the Space of Disse?
What can be seen on the surface of a cirrhotic liver following scarring and fibrosis?
How does fibrosis affect blood flow in the liver?
Spaces reserved for blood flow fill with fibrosis
⇒ portal hypertension
What is a fatal acute outcome of Hepatitis B infection?
Fulminant liver failure
What are long term complications of chronic Hepatitis B infection?
What are long term complications of Hepatitis C?
remember that Hepatitis C has a long incubation period and tends to be assymptomatic
Primary biliary cirrhosis / cholangitis
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
all autoimmune diseases
Primary biliary cirrhosis (name) is an ___ disease associated with the destruction of mitochondria by ____.
Who tends to get primary biliary cirrhosis?
fat fertile females in their 40s
What is seen microscopically in primary biliary cirrhosis?
Primary biliary cirrhosis is a disease of the ___ ___.
What does primary biliary cirrhosis lead to if untreated?
What drugs are used to treat autoimmune hepatitis?
Why is drug history important in liver and renal disease?
Lots of hepatitis is drug-induced
Why may young men develop autoimmune hepatitis?
protein supplements, bulking etc.
Which bile ducts does primary biliary cirrhosis affect?
Small ones within the liver
What bile ducts does primary sclerosing cholangitis affect?
Intra and extra-hepatic ducts