Flashcards in 10. Absolutism in Eastern Europe, 1600-1725 Deck (18)
By 1648, which three empires occupied Eastern Europe, the area from French border to Russia?
what similarity between them?
HRE, Republic of Poland, and Ottoman Empire
- they were all declining
Respective families in Austria and Prussia?
Hapsburgs and Hohenzollerns
What political state was Poland in?
there was a king, but severely restricted by nobles.
This lack of centralized power left it vulnerable
How did the Hapsburgs suffer a series of setbacks?
How were their powers revived?
- Devastation of 30 Years' war, extinction of Hapsburg line in Spain.
- Treaty of Utrecht gave them Naples, Sardinia, and Milan in Italy AND Austrian Netherlands
Hapsburg empire embraced a large # of ethnic groups. In what ways were they unified?
Only by Catholic faith and loyalty to the dynasty
What is Pragmatic Sanction and who issued it and why
Charles VI of HRE (reigned 1711-1740) was determined to insure a safe succession for his daughter, Maria Theresa. the Sanction stated that Hapsburg empire territories were indivisible and Maria would inherit all lands.
Charles worked very very hard to achieve this
The two most famous leaders associated with the rise of Prussia from 1640 to 1740
Frederick William, the Great Elector
Frederick William I
What did the two Fredericks--or in general, the Hohenzollerns--of Prussia focus mostly on?
Building a powerful army, prioritizing military values
Who are Junkers
What is the period of disorder after the death of Ivan known as?
Time of Troubles
Beginning in 1613, what dynasty ruled Russia as a result of an assembly of nobles hoping to restore order?
Who was elected to be then next tsar?
Until when did this dynasty rule?
-Michael I of Romanov
-Right before WWI
Who recognized that Russia had fallen behind and thus brought successful changes to Russia?
Peter the Great
What are Peter's 3 successes of his reign
1. Program of modernization
2. Construction of St. Petersburg
3. Victory over Sweden in Great Northern War
How did Peter modernize Russia
Expanded the army and new navy
Major result of his victory over Sweden?
Sweden declined while Russia became dominant power on Baltic Sea
What did Peter's St. Petersburg symbolize?
Peter the Great's new and more powerful Russia
Who were boyars and how did Peter control them?
-Old nobility supporting traditional Russian culture
- Peter told them to shave their beard off and wear western clothing