10: Colorectal cancer Flashcards Preview

Gastrointestinal Week 5 2016/17 > 10: Colorectal cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in 10: Colorectal cancer Deck (45)
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1

Colorectal cancer is the 2nd most common cause of cancer ___.

death

2

What is the benign form of colorectal neoplasia?

Adenoma

3

What is the malignant form of colorectal neoplasia?

Adenocarcinoma

4

What are adenomas a subset of?

Polyps

5

Polyps can also be ___.

inflammatory

6

What are two types of genes associated with cancer?

Oncogenes

Tumour suppressor genes

7

Oncogenes promote ___ ___ and ___ when normal.

cell growth

division

8

When mutated, oncogenes cause ___ cell growth and division.

excessive

9

Tumour suppressor genes ___ cell growth and division when normal.

suppress

10

What happens when tumour suppressor genes mutate?

Cell growth and division no longer suppressed

uncontrolled ""

11

Name an example of a tumour suppressor gene associated with colorectal cancer.

APC

12

Name an example of an oncogene involved in colorectal cancer.

K-Ras

13

slide 19

tubular - fissures

villous - seaweed-like fronds

14

Adenocarcinomas can be well, moderately or poorly ___.

differentiated

15

Which two staging systems are used to classify the progression of colorectal cancer?

Dukes

TNM

16

Describe a Dukes A tumour.

Hasn't invaded the muscle wall

17

Describe a Dukes B tumour.

Tumour has invaded the muscle wall but no lymph nodes are involved

18

Described a Dukes C tumour.

Tumour has invaded muscle wall and lymph nodes are involved

19

Describe a Dukes D tumour.

Distant metastases

20

By what means can colorectal cancer spread?

Local (i.e via adjacent structures)

Lymphatically

Blood (liver and lungs specifically)

Transcoelomic (into the peritoneal cavity)

21

Treatment of colorectal cancer must take into consideration the ___ ___ involved.

lymph nodes

22

What lifestyle factors protect against colorectal cancer?

Diet (high fibre, fruit and veg)

Exercise

23

What lifestyle factors cause colorectal cancer?

Red, processed meat

Smoking

Alcohol

Obesity

24

A large family history of colorectal cancer (increases / decreases) the chances of developing it yourself.

increases

25

What is FAP?

Familal adenomatous polyposis

an inherited form of colorectal cancer.

26

What is the clinical presentation of FAP?

shitloads of polyps

27

What is HNPCC?

Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

i.e FAP without all the polyps

28

Name two inherited forms of colorectal cancer.

What mode of inheritance do they have?

FAP , HNPCC

Autosomal dominant

29

Which GI conditions predispose you to cancer?

Adenomatous polyps

Crohn's disease

Ulcerative colitis

30

___ inflammation is associated with the onset of colorectal cancer.

Chronic