Colorectal cancer is the 2nd most common cause of cancer ___.
What is the benign form of colorectal neoplasia?
What is the malignant form of colorectal neoplasia?
What are adenomas a subset of?
Polyps can also be ___.
What are two types of genes associated with cancer?
Tumour suppressor genes
Oncogenes promote ___ ___ and ___ when normal.
When mutated, oncogenes cause ___ cell growth and division.
Tumour suppressor genes ___ cell growth and division when normal.
What happens when tumour suppressor genes mutate?
Cell growth and division no longer suppressed
Name an example of a tumour suppressor gene associated with colorectal cancer.
Name an example of an oncogene involved in colorectal cancer.
tubular - fissures
villous - seaweed-like fronds
Adenocarcinomas can be well, moderately or poorly ___.
Which two staging systems are used to classify the progression of colorectal cancer?
Describe a Dukes A tumour.
Hasn't invaded the muscle wall
Describe a Dukes B tumour.
Tumour has invaded the muscle wall but no lymph nodes are involved
Described a Dukes C tumour.
Tumour has invaded muscle wall and lymph nodes are involved
Describe a Dukes D tumour.
By what means can colorectal cancer spread?
Local (i.e via adjacent structures)
Blood (liver and lungs specifically)
Transcoelomic (into the peritoneal cavity)
Treatment of colorectal cancer must take into consideration the ___ ___ involved.
What lifestyle factors protect against colorectal cancer?
Diet (high fibre, fruit and veg)
What lifestyle factors cause colorectal cancer?
Red, processed meat
A large family history of colorectal cancer (increases / decreases) the chances of developing it yourself.
What is FAP?
Familal adenomatous polyposis
an inherited form of colorectal cancer.
What is the clinical presentation of FAP?
shitloads of polyps
What is HNPCC?
Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer
i.e FAP without all the polyps
Name two inherited forms of colorectal cancer.
What mode of inheritance do they have?
FAP , HNPCC
Which GI conditions predispose you to cancer?
___ inflammation is associated with the onset of colorectal cancer.