Normally, the gut acts as a ___ organ for the ___ immune system.
What are the two types of inflammatory bowel disease?
What symptoms tend to be seen in Crohn's disease?
What symptoms tend to be seen in ulcerative colitis?
What three factors are involved in the pathogenesis of IBD?
Mucosal immune system
Which gene predisposes you to develop IBD?
What does the NOD2 gene code for?
Proteins involved in bacterial recognition
Smoking (aggravates / protects against) Crohn's disease.
Smoking (aggravates / protects against) ulcerative colitis.
Which class of drug aggravates colitis?
NSAIDs (ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac)
Which part of the GI tract does ulcerative colitis start in?
Where does it go after that?
If an acute flareup of UC doesn't clear up with drugs (e.g steroids), what is performed?
What are the main symptoms of ulcerative colitis?
Diarrhoea with blood
Increased bowel frequency
Lower abdominal pain in the left iliac fossa is characteristic of which disease?
What aspect of the past medical history is important in UC?
Antibiotics / NSAID use
Skin, eye, joint problems
What is the criteria for diagnosing severe UC?
>6 bloody stools within 24 hours
+ 1 or more of:
What may be seen on the AXR of someone with UC?
Absence of stools
Mucosal oedema - thumb print sign
What would be seen upon endoscopy of someone with UC?
Absence of goblet cells
Does UC affect the whole thickness of the gut?
No - mucosa only
What does ulcerative colitis increase your risk of?
What are some extra-intestinal symptoms of UC?
Skin - rashes
Oxalate renal stones
What gallbladder condition is associated with ulcerative colitis?
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
inflammation due to stricture in cystic duct
Which areas of the GI tract are affected by Crohn's disease?
Mouth to anus
What kind of lesions are seen in Crohn's disease?
How does this differ from UC?
UC is continous, Crohn's skips bits of the GI tract
What kind of inflammation is seen in Crohn's disease?
penetrates the whole gut wall
What is perianal disease associated with?
Give an example of a perianal disease associated with Crohn's.
What is a complication of rectal abscesses seen in Crohn's disease?
Why may someone with Crohn's disease become incontinent?
Damage to anal sphincters caused by abscesses
What pathology, causing bowel obstruction, is seen in Crohn's disease?