10 minute topic DKA, HHNK and HHS Flashcards Preview

Nursing 281 > 10 minute topic DKA, HHNK and HHS > Flashcards

Flashcards in 10 minute topic DKA, HHNK and HHS Deck (13):
1

What is happening in DKA?

Body uses fat instead of glucose
Ketones are a waste product of fat breakdown
Ketones build up in the blood

2

Sx of DKA

Polyuria causing dehydration
N/V, abd pain
Kussmaul respiration
Altered mental status

3

Dx of DKA

BS > 250mg/dl
Ketone positive in urine/blood
Acidotic, pH < 18
Low C02 in the blood

4

IV fluids for DKA

start with NS then switch to D5 ½ when blood sugar is less than 250mg/dL

5

How much to decrease BS per hour?

50-75 mg/dl/hr

6

DKA causes`

Illness
MI
CVA
Trauma
Surgery
Stress
Meds – ie Steroids

7

When to monitor for ketones

if the PT is sick or BS consistantly >300

8

HHNK/HHS

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Non-Ketotic Syndrome

9

HHNK/HHS sx

polyuria
BS > 600 mg/dL can be as high at 1500 mg/dL
Tachycardia
Drowsiness
no fruity breath

10

Acetones

ketones in the blood

11

Treatment of HHNK/HHS

Rehydrate w/ NS then D5 ½ NS
IV insulin

12

When to convert from IV to SQ insulin

BS <200 and patient is eating

13

Similarities between DKA & HHNK/HHS

High risk of coma/death
Treated with IV insulin
Increased urination leads to severe dehydration
Watch electrolytes closely especially K+, MG & Phos