Ch 14 Acid Base Imbalance Flashcards Preview

Nursing 281 > Ch 14 Acid Base Imbalance > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 14 Acid Base Imbalance Deck (21):
1

Normal PaO2

80-100 mmHg

2

Normal PaCo2

35-45 mmHg

3

Normal bicarbonate

21-28 mEq/L

4

Normal Lactate

3-7 mg/dl

5

What organ controls bicarbonate levels?

Kidneys

6

Fatal pH levels

less than 6.9 or above 7.8

7

4 causes of metabolic acidosis

overproduction of H ions (DKA or starvation), anaerobic glucose breakdown (lactic acidosis, seizures, fever) and excessive intake of acids (alcohol, aspirin)
under elimination of H ions- kidney failure causes decreased secretion
underproduction of bicarbonate ions- due to renal , pancreas, or liver failure
over elimination of bicarcbonate ions- due to diarrhea

8

Lab results of metabolic acidosis

pH ↓ HCo3↓ PaCo2 is normal

9

Respiratory acidosis

caused by Co2 retention

10

Causes of respiratory acidosis

Poor gas exchange
pneumonia, TB, emphysema, pulmonary emboli or edema

11

Lab results of respiratory acidosis

pH↓ HCo3 normal PaCo2 ↑ if acidosis is chronic, HCO3 will be elevated because it is trying to compensate

12

Manifestations of acidosis

similar to hyperkalemia
lethargy, muscle weakness, hypotension, bradycardia, Kussmauls respirations

13

Skin manifestations with metabolic acidosis

skin will be warm, flushed and dry

14

Skin manifestations with respiratory acidosis

skin will be pale or cyanotic and dry

15

Cause of metabolic alkalosis

an increase of bases (increased intake of oral antacids or massive blood transfusions) or a decrease of acids (prolonged vomiting, excess cortisol, hyperaldosteronism, diuretics, prolonged suctioning)

16

Causes of respiratory alkalosis

caused by excessive loss of CO2 through hyperventilation d/t anxiety, fear, fever, salicylates or improper settings on ventilators

17

Manifestations of alkalosis

> activity
anxiety
seizures
+ Trousseus and Chvostecks sign
muscle cramps
> HR, < BP

18

Changes to breathing with respiratory alkalosis

increased rate and depth of respirations

19

Changes to breathing with metabolic alkalosis

decreased respiratory effort

20

Lab results in metabolic alkalosis

pH ↑ HCO3 ↑ CO2 normal

21

Lab results in respiratory alkalosis

pH ↑ HCO3 normal CO2 ↓