10 minute topic Osteoporosis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 10 minute topic Osteoporosis Deck (28):
1

Osteoblast cells

responsible for bone formation

2

Osteoclast cells

function in bone re-absorption

3

Osteopenia

low bone mineral density
precursor to osteoporosis

4

Time of peak bone density

18-35

5

Foods rich in vitamin D

fish, egg yolks, fortified milk, and cereal

6

Foods rick in calcium

milk products, green vegetables, fortified orange juice and cereals, red and white beans, and figs

7

Risk factors for osteoporosis

Female
> 60 years (> 75 in men)
Post-menopausal estrogen deficiency
Oral contraceptive use
Large intake of caffeinated or carbonated beverages
Tall, thin, lean body type
High alcohol intake
Smoker

8

Secondary causes of osteoporosis

long term corticosteroid use
hyperparathyroidism

9

calcium and vitamin D supplements

take with food

10

Medications for Osteoporosis

HRT
Selective estrogen receptor modulators
Ca and vit D supplement
Bisphosphonates
Thyroid hormone

11

HRT

Premarin
possible breast and endometrial cancers
DVT
estrogen and progesterone need to be given to women who still have uterus

12

Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators

raloxifene hydrochloride (Evista)
Decrease osteoclasts
Do not use in hx of DVT
Monitor LFT's

13

What to monitor with Ca supplement

kidney stones

14

Absorption of vit D

fat saluble
toxicity sx include nausea, constipation and kidney stones

15

Bisphosphonates

alendronate (fosamax), ibandronate (boniva), risedronate (Actonel)
Decreases osteoclasts
Monitor output, drug can be toxic to kidneys
Take w/ 8 oz. of water early morning before eating
Remain upright for 30 min

16

Thyroid hormone

calcitonin human, calcitonin salmon (Miacalcin, fortical) – this may be given if the osteoporosis is related to hyperparathyroidism
Inhibit osteoclast activity
Calcitonin salmon administered subq, im, and intranasally

17

Osteoarthritis

deterioration of the articular cartilage
noninflammatory (unless localized), and nonsystemic disease

18

Osteoarthritis sx

joint pain improved with rest
localized inflammatory response
pain on palpation
crepitus
enlarged joint or nodes

19

Osteoarthritis Dx

x-ray or CT

20

Osteoarthritis teaching

use joint saving measures, maintain healthy wt

21

Osteoarthritis risk factors

>55yrs
Female
Obesity
Possible genetic link
Hx of repetitive stress on joints

22

Labs for Osteoarthritis

Increase in ESR
HS (high sensitivity) C-reactive protein increased slightly
No change in ANA (only seen in RA)

23

Paget’s disease

A chronic metabolic disorder where bone is excessively broken down and reformed. Bone matrix is structurally disorganized resulting in bone weakness with increased risk of bowing of long bones and fractures.

24

Types of Paget’s disease

familial or sporadic

25

Paget’s disease tx

no real tx
offer support of sx

26

Osteomalacia

A loss of bone related to vitamin D deficiency caused by inadequate deposits of calcium and phosphorus in the bone matrix.
Called Rickets in children
Causes soft bone

27

Osteomalacia tests

Vitamin D levels
Bone biopsy
X-ray
ALP (alkaline phosphatase) isoenzyme or PTH to ckeck for underlying kidney problem

28

Osteomalacia prognosis

Improvement seen within a few weeks in some
Complete healing within 6 months.