11. The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 11. The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment Deck (25):
1

Copernicus wrote:___________, what was it about

"On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies"
about his heliocentric view

2

Who supported Copernicus with mathematical observation

Tycho Brahe

3

What is Johannes Kepler known for

Kepler's 3 laws of planetary motion

4

In what year is considered the beginning of Scientific Revolution?
What else happened that year?

1543
-Copernicus died

5

Galileo was accused of his heliocentric views by which pope?

Pope Urban VII

6

Which two famous people came up with the Scientific Method? how?

Sir Francis BACON's Inductive method
+
Rene DESCARTES's Deductive method

7

What is an example of an organized Scientific Society?

Royal Society in England

8

Sir Isaac Newton published:__________
basically came up with?

"Principia"
a single mathematical formula of universal gravitation

9

Who were Philosophes?

Key thing about them?

thinkers who exposed social problems and proposed reforms
- Reason.

10

New religious movement: Deism: what was Deist beliefs

God exists as a watchmaker who created the universe then let it run according to natural laws

11

Who was best known and most influential philosophe (aka Prince of the philosophes)?
What is his famous saying and what does it mean?

- Voltaire
- "Crush the Infamous Thing", said against the flaws of the Christian church system

12

Denis Diderot

chief editor of "Encyclopedia"

13

Importance of Encyclopedia?
2 things

- Disseminated(spread) enlightened thinking across Europe and NA
- Undermined political and religious authorities by including controversial articles

14

"The Spirit of the Laws" written by?
what is it about?

Montesquieu
- Separation of powers among executive, legislative, and judicial branches

15

Jean-Jacques Rousseau associated himself with two topics:

Natural education and the General Will

16

Rousseau published 2 major works:

"Emile" and "The Social Contract"

17

What was "Emile" about?

Rousseau stressed "natural education" for children,
Children should be encouraged to draw their own conclusions from experience

18

What is "the Social Contract" about?

a political theory, saying that the power does not lie in a ruler. instead, it resides in the general will of the community as a whole.

19

Unlike other philosophes such as Voltaire who opposed enemies of reason, Rousseau:

distrusted reason and science. He trusted emotions and spontaneous feeling more than cold logic.

20

what are physiocrats?
what did they question?

economic reformers who questioned mercantilist principles

21

What did physiocrats argue and stress?

gov'ts should follow a laissez-faire policy of economy

22

Who was the most influential advocate of laissez-faire economics?

Adam Smith

23

What did Adam Smith publish?
what is it about

"The Wealth of Nations"
- role of government to be limited, free markets to be established w/o tariffs

24

How are Newton and Adam Smith similar?

Both combined the thought of predecessors into a single system based upon the study and application of natural laws

25

Enlightenment philosophers can be divided into two major types:

Rationalists and Empiricists