Flashcards in 11. The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment Deck (25)
Copernicus wrote:___________, what was it about
"On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies"
about his heliocentric view
Who supported Copernicus with mathematical observation
What is Johannes Kepler known for
Kepler's 3 laws of planetary motion
In what year is considered the beginning of Scientific Revolution?
What else happened that year?
Galileo was accused of his heliocentric views by which pope?
Pope Urban VII
Which two famous people came up with the Scientific Method? how?
Sir Francis BACON's Inductive method
Rene DESCARTES's Deductive method
What is an example of an organized Scientific Society?
Royal Society in England
Sir Isaac Newton published:__________
basically came up with?
a single mathematical formula of universal gravitation
Who were Philosophes?
Key thing about them?
thinkers who exposed social problems and proposed reforms
New religious movement: Deism: what was Deist beliefs
God exists as a watchmaker who created the universe then let it run according to natural laws
Who was best known and most influential philosophe (aka Prince of the philosophes)?
What is his famous saying and what does it mean?
- "Crush the Infamous Thing", said against the flaws of the Christian church system
chief editor of "Encyclopedia"
Importance of Encyclopedia?
- Disseminated(spread) enlightened thinking across Europe and NA
- Undermined political and religious authorities by including controversial articles
"The Spirit of the Laws" written by?
what is it about?
- Separation of powers among executive, legislative, and judicial branches
Jean-Jacques Rousseau associated himself with two topics:
Natural education and the General Will
Rousseau published 2 major works:
"Emile" and "The Social Contract"
What was "Emile" about?
Rousseau stressed "natural education" for children,
Children should be encouraged to draw their own conclusions from experience
What is "the Social Contract" about?
a political theory, saying that the power does not lie in a ruler. instead, it resides in the general will of the community as a whole.
Unlike other philosophes such as Voltaire who opposed enemies of reason, Rousseau:
distrusted reason and science. He trusted emotions and spontaneous feeling more than cold logic.
what are physiocrats?
what did they question?
economic reformers who questioned mercantilist principles
What did physiocrats argue and stress?
gov'ts should follow a laissez-faire policy of economy
Who was the most influential advocate of laissez-faire economics?
What did Adam Smith publish?
what is it about
"The Wealth of Nations"
- role of government to be limited, free markets to be established w/o tariffs
How are Newton and Adam Smith similar?
Both combined the thought of predecessors into a single system based upon the study and application of natural laws