Flashcards in 1.2- Coastal Landscapes Deck (49)
What are the 3 types of weathering?
chemical, biological and mechanical
What is chemical weathering?
rocks reacting with slightly acidic water
What is biological weathering?
action of plants and animals causing the rocks to widen and split apart
What is mechanical weathering?
water falls into the cracks in rocks and freezes, causing it to expand. over time the repeated thawing and freezing causes the rocks to break apart
What is mass movement?
the downhill movement of material under the influence of gravity
What are 4 types of coastal erosion?
abrasion, attrition, hydraulic action and soloution
What is abrasion?
breaking waves containing sand erode the shoreline or headland. It is also known as the sandpaper effect.
What is hydraulic action?
The sheer weight and impact of water compressing air in rock joints forcing them apart.
What is attrition?
rocks and pebbles carried by waves smashing together and breaking into smaller pieces
what is solution? (erosion)
the chemical action of seawater dissolving some rocks
What is soil creep?
individual particles of soil moving down a slope under 5he influence of gravity
What is sliding?
where material moves rapidly downslop in one go like a landslide.
What is slumping?
when the ground also rotates
What are flows?
masses of with water flowing like a liquid downhill
What what causes rain to become more acidic?
What is longshore drift?
the process at which sand is transported along the beach by waves.
What is traction?
large boulders being rolled along the seabed
What is salatation?
smaller stones being bounced along the seabed.
What is suspension?
sand and small particles being carried along in the flow
what is solution? (transportation)
some minerals being dissolved in seawater and carried along with the flow
What is deposition?
the dropping of sediment
What is the process of longshore drift?
waves approach the coastline at an acute angle. bringing sediment onto the beach with the swash. sediment is then dragged back down by the backwash under the force of gravity at a right angle. this process continues in a zig zag pattern moving sediment along the beach.
what is a constructive wave?
a wave that deposits sand
swash is stronger than backwash
occur in calm conditions
what is a destructive wave?
a wave that erodes sand
swash is weaker than backwash
occur in stormy conditions
what is a concordant coast?
A coast that is made up of the same type of rock
what is a discordant coast?
a coast that is made up of many different types of rock. it forms headlands and bays because some rock is erodes faster.
what are joints?
smaller cracks in rocks
what are faults?
larger cracks in rocks
what are some effects of stormy weather?
mass movement contribution
frequent storms erode landforms
beach sediment is removed
sand dunes can be removed by storms
flooding causes soil saturation