Describe the difference between 'weather' and 'climate'
Weather- the day to day conditions of the atmosphere (temp, precipitation etc.) Climate- the average condition of an area occurring over 30+ years.
What is the coriolis effect and what does it do?
It's the deflection of air movement by the earths rotations. It makes storms swirl clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere and counter-clockwise in the northern hemisphere.
Describe a Hadley cell
A circulation cell near the equator responsible for storms at the equator and desert belts north and south of the equator.
Describe polar cells.
A circulation cell furthest from the equator that brings cold air south to the UK
Describe Ferrel cells.
A circulation cell that brings warm weather to the UK
What is global atmospheric circulation?
It's the worldwide movement of air (wind) which transports heat from tropical to polar latitudes.
What is the jet stream?
It is a fast moving current of air in the upper atmosphere.
What are 3 PHYSICAL causes of climate change?
•Variations in solar energy - sunspot activity on the sun raises global temperature. •Milankovitch cycle- a slight tilt in the earths orbit around the sun. Larger tilt means hotter summer and colder winters. •volcanic eruptions- large quantities of ash block the earths incoming insolation, lowering global temperatures.
What are 3 types of HUMAN causes of climate change?
•Industry- rising demand-increases production-burning more fossil fuels-released more greenhouse gaseswhich harm the planet
•Farming-population growth-increased demand-Mechanisation burns more fuel.
•Transport-rising affluence-increase car ownership&air travel-releases more greenhouse gases.
What are 2 Negative impacts of climate change on the environment?
•Melting ice caps & retreating glaciers adds water to oceans leading to sea level rise leading to a change in the oceanic circulation causes changes in temps. •rising sea level causes coastal flooding. Soils can become contaminated with salt, causing plants to die.
What are 2 Negative impacts of climate change on people?
lower crop yields
greater flood risk
What are the two types of glacial periods?
•Interglacial period-what were living in now-(Period of time with warmer than average temps causing glaciers to retreat) •Glacial periods (period of time with lower than average temperatures causing glaciers to retreat)
What are the main ways to find evidence of climate change?
•ice cores (capture info about weather e.g pollen dust) •pollen records (certain plants grow in certain weather conditions, gives info about climate when pollen was trapped) •tree rings (wide the rings the warmer and wetter the climate, thin rings, cold dry climate) •diaries, religious records (help find out about past weather and climate)
How has the climate changed over the past 1000 years and what's it like today?
Medieval warm periods- high temperatures Little ice age-very low temps NOW-temperate, wet climate.
How does the maritime influence impact the UK's climate?
Most of the air reachingThe UK contains lots of moisture as we are surrounded by sea, leading to rainfall all year
How do prevailing winds impact the UK's climate?
Prevailing wind for the UK comes from Southwest. this air travels long distances of the Atlantic Ocean, bringing moisture, leading to more rainfall.
What are some impacts of the UK's location on the climate?
•Maritime influence •prevailing winds •North Atlantic drift •atmospheric circulation •altitude
How does the North Atlantic drift affect the UK's climate?
This ocean current brings warm water north to the UK from the Gulf of Mexico. In the winter, this makes UK climate milder than would be expected for its latitude.
How does atmospheric circulation affect the U.K.'s climate?
UK is near the boundary between the northern Ferrel and polar sacculation cells. This is where a warm air meets cold air, causing unsettled weather.
How does altitude affect the U.K.'s climate?
The higher an area is the cooler and wetter it it is, so areas in the UK vary.