12. Peace, War, and Enlightened Despots, 1715-1789 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 12. Peace, War, and Enlightened Despots, 1715-1789 Deck (24)
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What was the most prevalent form of gov't in 18th C

it remained monarchy


Great powers of Europe in18th C included: (5)
What previous powers were no longer considered great? (5)

Britain, France, Austria, Prussia, and Russia
- Spain, Holland(Dutch), Poland, Sweden, Ottoman Empire


Important changes and characteristics of the wars fought between the great powers IN 18TH CENTURY:

- Professional armies fought based on maneuver and strategy(Introduction of guns) rather than bloody mass combat (swords/blunt)
- There were no religious wars


1715 to 1789 can be divided into 3 distinctive periods. describe them

1. Period of peace and prosperity (1715-1740)
2. Warfare (1740-1763)
3. Period of enlightened despotism (1763-1789)


The first two Hanoverian monarchs exercised little real power. why?

they spoke little English


Who emerged as England's first prime minister when George I,II of Hanover ruled?

Robert Walpole


Who succeeded Louis XIV of France and how strong was he?
What happened?

Louis XV, a weak leader.
So, nobles regained much of the power lost to Louis XIV.


How did France stand economically throughout 1715-1740?

Gov't debts continued to mount


What rivalry was developing in early 18th C in central Europe?

Hohenzollerns of Prussia and Hapsburgs of Austria vied for power


War of the Austrian Succession years?
Why did it happen?

- Frederick the Great of Prussia (aka Frederick II) ignored the Pragmatic Sanction and seized Silesia, a prosperous region


Who supported Prussia and who supported Austria in the war of Austrian Succession?

French supported Prussia, English supported Austria


Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ended the War of Aust. Succ.
what were the terms? what did it mean?

Frederick retained control of Silesia, thus confirming Prussia's status as a great power and chief rival of Austria in German affairs


Vowing to recover Silesia, what did the Austrian chancellor Count Kaunitz do?

Allied with France and Russia.


What did Prussia do in response to Austria's coalition with France and Russia?

Allied with England who wanted to maintain the balance of power


What war resulted between Prussian alliance w/England and anti-Prussian alliance?
or in other words, What war came after the War of Austrian Succession?

The Seven Years' War


How did the 7-years' war events go?

Anti-Prussian alliance almost threatened to crush Prussia, but Prussia was saved when the new tsar of Russia dropped out of the war.


What treaty ended the 7-years' war? year?

Treaty of Paris 1763


What were the 2 major results of the Treaty of Paris?

- Prussia kept Silesia
- Britain got stronger


In the period of Enlightened Despotism, who were the 3 best-known examples?

-Catherine the Great of Russia
-Frederick the Great of Prussia
-Joseph II of Austria


What is Catherine the Great's story of enlightened despotism?

Attempted it and started pretty well in implementing for the good of the people, but when Pugachev's Rebellion rolled around, she went back to becoming absolute ruler.


How did Poland disappear as an independent nation?

a series of partitions took place between Prussia, Austria, and Russia near the end of 18th C


Frederick the Great's famous quote as an enlightened despot?

"the first servant of the state"


What was important about the changes Frederick the Great brought to Prussia as an enlightened despot?

Only affected the top layers of societies. Serfs remained serfs and bound to the land


What did Joseph II of Austria do as an enlightened despot?

abolished serfdom but was met with high resistance from the nobles. Thus, it came back with the next emperor