12. Synaptic Transmission Flashcards Preview

04. MSK Exam 2 Final > 12. Synaptic Transmission > Flashcards

Flashcards in 12. Synaptic Transmission Deck (27)
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1

What kind of acetylcholine receptors does skeletal muscle use?

Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

2

What kind of neurotransmitter is acetylcholine?

Choline Ester

3

What is the Quantal Hypothesis of synaptic transmission?

Each presynaptic vesicle (also called "quanta") contains about 5,000 to 10,000 molecules of neurotransmitter. A more significant action potential causes more vesicles, and therefore more neurotransmitters to be released.

4

What kind of effect would an excitatory post synaptic potential cause?

Changing of the membrane potential from its current state, closer to the threshold (more positive)

 

Opening of sodium channels is often how this effect is accomplished

5

What is the sequence of events for a chemical synapse?

 

(Rather than memorize the list, review the process in your head and check it against the answer)

  1. Neurotransmitters synthesized
  2. Neurotransmitters stored in the axon terminal
  3. Action potential causes a calcium channel to open, and synaptic vesicles fuse with the axon terminus to release the neurotransmitters into the synaptic gap
  4. Neurotransmitters bind to the receptors
  5. Post synaptic response occurs
  6. Neurotransmitters are either inactivated by enzymes, cleared from the synaptic gap by diffusion, or reuptaken into the presynaptic neuron.

6

What two mechanisms can inhibitory post synaptic potentials use to prevent action potentials?

Influx of negative ions (think Cl-)

OR

Potassium leaving the cell

7

What kind of neurotransmitter is dopamine?

Biogenic Amine

8

Where is a good example of where you would see neurons that use electrical synaptic transmission?

The heart muscle

9

Which type of synaptic transmission (electrical or chemical) is multidirectional, and which is unidirectional?

Electrical synaptic transmission is multidirectional

 

Chemical synaptic transmission is unidirectional

10

What is another name for a Metabotropic Receptor?

Muscarinic acetylcoline receptor

11

What are the differences between spatial and temporal exitatory post synaptic potentials?

Spatial is where multiple neurons all fire at the same time, and their excitatory potentials add up to a post synaptic action potential - occurs all at once

 

 

Temporal is where one neuron fires over and over until it generates enough post synaptic membrane potential to reach threshold and fire an action potential

 

12

What kind of neurotransmitter is glucagon?

Neuropeptide

13

What kind of neurotransmitter is serotonin?

Biogenic Amine

14

What type of protien is coupled with muscarinic acetylcoline receptors to bring about the intracellular affect?

 

What subgroup acts to carry the signal further?

G-Protien

 

The Beta and Gamma subunits

15

Which of the two types of synaptic transmission has a synaptic gap?

Chemical synaptic transmission

16

What are the two types of exitatory post synaptic potentials?

Spatial and Temporal

17

What do neurons that use electrical junctions pass their signals through?

Gap Junctions

18

What do Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors cause in the neurons that have them?

Increase in Na+ and a decrease K+ by increasing the permiability of the plasma membrane to these ions.

19

What kind of neurotransmitter is GABA?

Amino Acid

20

Which type of acetylcholine receptor is also called "Ionotropic?"

Nicotinic receptor

21

What kind of acetylcholine receptors does the parasympathetic nervous system use?

Muscarinic Receptors

22

What kind of neurotransmitters are endorphins?

Neuropeptides

23

What neurotransmitter has nicotinic and muscarinic receptors?

Acetylcholine

24

What kind of neurotransmitter is Epinephrine?

Biogenic Amine

25

What are the four criteria for a molecule to be a neurotransmitter?

  1. Must be synthesized in a presynaptic neuron
  2. Must be released in response to a presynaptic action potential
  3. Must attach to, and cause a response in, a postsynaptic receptor
  4. Must be able to be inactivated

26

Which type of signal trasmission happens more quickly, electrical or chemical?

Electrical

27

Which of the two types of synaptic transmission do you see in the autonomic nervous system?

Chemical