What kind of acetylcholine receptors does skeletal muscle use?
Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors
What kind of neurotransmitter is acetylcholine?
What is the Quantal Hypothesis of synaptic transmission?
Each presynaptic vesicle (also called "quanta") contains about 5,000 to 10,000 molecules of neurotransmitter. A more significant action potential causes more vesicles, and therefore more neurotransmitters to be released.
What kind of effect would an excitatory post synaptic potential cause?
Changing of the membrane potential from its current state, closer to the threshold (more positive)
Opening of sodium channels is often how this effect is accomplished
What is the sequence of events for a chemical synapse?
(Rather than memorize the list, review the process in your head and check it against the answer)
- Neurotransmitters synthesized
- Neurotransmitters stored in the axon terminal
- Action potential causes a calcium channel to open, and synaptic vesicles fuse with the axon terminus to release the neurotransmitters into the synaptic gap
- Neurotransmitters bind to the receptors
- Post synaptic response occurs
- Neurotransmitters are either inactivated by enzymes, cleared from the synaptic gap by diffusion, or reuptaken into the presynaptic neuron.
What two mechanisms can inhibitory post synaptic potentials use to prevent action potentials?
Influx of negative ions (think Cl-)
Potassium leaving the cell
What kind of neurotransmitter is dopamine?
Where is a good example of where you would see neurons that use electrical synaptic transmission?
The heart muscle
Which type of synaptic transmission (electrical or chemical) is multidirectional, and which is unidirectional?
Electrical synaptic transmission is multidirectional
Chemical synaptic transmission is unidirectional
What is another name for a Metabotropic Receptor?
Muscarinic acetylcoline receptor
What are the differences between spatial and temporal exitatory post synaptic potentials?
Spatial is where multiple neurons all fire at the same time, and their excitatory potentials add up to a post synaptic action potential - occurs all at once
Temporal is where one neuron fires over and over until it generates enough post synaptic membrane potential to reach threshold and fire an action potential
What kind of neurotransmitter is glucagon?
What kind of neurotransmitter is serotonin?
What type of protien is coupled with muscarinic acetylcoline receptors to bring about the intracellular affect?
What subgroup acts to carry the signal further?
The Beta and Gamma subunits
Which of the two types of synaptic transmission has a synaptic gap?
Chemical synaptic transmission
What are the two types of exitatory post synaptic potentials?
Spatial and Temporal
What do neurons that use electrical junctions pass their signals through?
What do Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors cause in the neurons that have them?
Increase in Na+ and a decrease K+ by increasing the permiability of the plasma membrane to these ions.
What kind of neurotransmitter is GABA?
Which type of acetylcholine receptor is also called "Ionotropic?"
What kind of acetylcholine receptors does the parasympathetic nervous system use?
What kind of neurotransmitters are endorphins?
What neurotransmitter has nicotinic and muscarinic receptors?
What kind of neurotransmitter is Epinephrine?
What are the four criteria for a molecule to be a neurotransmitter?
- Must be synthesized in a presynaptic neuron
- Must be released in response to a presynaptic action potential
- Must attach to, and cause a response in, a postsynaptic receptor
- Must be able to be inactivated
Which type of signal trasmission happens more quickly, electrical or chemical?
Which of the two types of synaptic transmission do you see in the autonomic nervous system?