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04. MSK Exam 2 Final > 8. Integument > Flashcards

Flashcards in 8. Integument Deck (81)
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1

What are the two steps of the production of melanin listed in the lecture?

Tyrosine -> DOPA (tyrosinase)

DOPA -> Melanin (polymerization)

2

What four main cell types are contained in the Stratum Basale?

Keratinocytes

Stem Cells

Melanocytes

Merkel Cells

3

Which sweat glands are activated during puberty?

Apocrine sweat glands

4

What layer of skin can only be seen in thick skin?

Stratum Lucidium

5

What part of the melanocyte extends into the cell processes?

The melanosome

6

How is the melanin producing enzyme induced to produce more melanin?

It is UV sensitive

7

What layer of the skin is constantly shed?

Stratum Corneum

8

Where can one identify Langerhans Cells?

In the Stratum Spinosum

9

Why might superficial Stratum Corneum cells be less able to attach to one another than deeper cells of the epidermis?

Because the lowered pH is unfavorable to cell junctions

10

What would you find at the core of a pacinian corpuscle?

A Myelinated Neuron

11

What changes define a cell of the Stratum Corneum as we travel up through the layers?

Loss of organelles

Becoming full of mature keratin

12

What do we call the bundles of keratin filaments in the basal layer?

Tonofibrils

13

What is a "cornified" cell?

A cell that is full of keratin

14

What binds the most basal cells of the stratum basale to the dermis?

Hemidesmosomes

15

What cells provide "acute sensory perception" for light touch?

Merkel Cells

16

What sort of secretion do Apocrine Sweat Glands use?

Merocrine secretion

(despite the name)

17

Why is the Stratum Lucidium named as such?

Because it appears "clear" relative to other layers.

18

What classification of epithelial tissue is seen in the epidermis?

Keratinized stratified squamous

19

Why does the Stratum Granulosum appear so dark purple on a normal stain?

Because keratohyalin granules are basophillic

20

Where in the dermis are you likely to find a layer of loose areolar connective tissue?

Between the papillary layer and the epidermis

21

What is the thickest layer of the non-keratinized portion of the epidermis?

Stratum Granulosum

(These cells produce karatin precursors to the layers above them)

22

What do sebaceous glands secrete?

Sebum

23

Which layer of the skin thickens with pressure to form corns and calluses?

The Stratum Spinosum

24

What do myoepithelial cells do?

Squeeze sweat glands to release the sweat product

25

Where might the dermal epidermal junction be more "zippered?"

Areas of increased mechanical stress

26

What nail cell divides to form the majority of the nail?

Nail Matrix stem cells

27

Where is the water barrier of the epidermis primarily found?

Between the cells of the Stratum Granulosum and the Stratum Corneum

(It also exists between the layers of the Stratum Corneum)

28

What binds the apical sides of the keratinocytes of the Stratum Basale?

Desmosomes

29

In what layer of the eipdermis would we find "squames?"

Stratum Corneum

(This is what some people refer to the flat corneal cells as)

30

Where would the Stratum Lucidum be present?

Palms and Soles of the Feet