13. Life and Culture in Eighteenth-Century Europe Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 13. Life and Culture in Eighteenth-Century Europe Deck (18):
1

What kind of system was used by farmers before the agricultural revolution?

open-field system

2

Where did the innovations for agriculture start in Europe?
why?

the Low Countries (Dutch areas)
- b/c it was most densely populated region

3

What did the landowners of England and the Low Countries do with the common land? (name of the movement)

Enclosure movement

4

2 most important consequences of enclosure movement

1. Enabled landowners to rapidly implement agricultural innovations
2. Forced poor rural ppl to move to cities and work

5

Charles "Turnip" Townshend

advocated continuous crop rotation using various crops

6

Jethro Tull

inventor of seed drill

7

Robert Bakewell

selective breeding of livestock

8

THE major crop that caused population explosion

POTATO

9

Marriage patterns after 1750 became :

more free.

less arranged marriages

10

Child rearing in the 18th C

due to high mortality rates, parents were reluctant to become attached to their children.
But, upper-middle-class began to place greater emphasis on child rearing

11

What happened to the life expectancy in 18th C?

increased from 25 to 35

12

In the rise of witchcraft in the 16th and 17th C, who were most likely to be subjected for witchcraft?

Elderly, widowed women

13

In the olden days, why were women believed to be susceptible to the Devil's temptations?

women were believed to be weak

14

Why did decline of witchcraft?

Scientific Revolution, Enlightenment emphasized REASON. Superstition and witchcraft were turned down.

15

When did the Rococo art style reach its peak of popularity

during the reign of Louis XV (1715-1774)

16

Basic characteristics of Rococo

1. lighthearted and frivolous scenes of "nobles a play"
2. featured light-colored pastels

17

What replaced Rococo during the 1780s?

Neoclassical style

18

Basic characteristics of Neoclassical art

Classical heroes, simplicity, symmetry