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Flashcards in 13. Local anesthetics Deck (12)
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1

Local anesthetics

Generally all have pKa of 8-9 except benzocaine

the anesthetics are ...

Toxins that blocks the VGSCs from the extracellular side

and all the other drugs
Cocaine
Procaine
Lidocaine
Benzocaine
Mepivacaine
Tetracaine
Bupivacaine
Ropivacaine
Levobupivacaine
Prilocaine
Articaine
(suffix of -caine)

2

Toxins that blocks the VGSCs from the extracellular side

Tetrodotoxin
Saxitoxin

3

Cocaine

block of amine uptake
AE: cardiovascular and CNS effects
rarely used

4

Procaine

AE: CNS effects, restlessness, convolutions → respiratory depression and cardiovascular collapse

5

Lidocaine

Rapid onset
2hr DOA
good penetration
widely used as local anesthesia
can be used for ventricular arrhythmias
AE: less CNS effects than Procaine , restlessness, convolutions → respiratory depression and cardiovascular collapse

6

Benzocaine

pKa 3.5 => non-ionized base in pH 7.4
used as surface anesthesia
slowly released and long lasting effect

7

Tetracaine

mainly for spinal and corneal anesthesia

8

Bupivacaine

Long DOA
AE: less CNS effects than Procaine , restlessness, convolutions → respiratory depression but greater cardio toxicity than Lidocaine

9

Ropivacaine

AE: less CNS effects than Procaine , restlessness, convolutions → respiratory depression but less cardio toxicity than Lidocaine

10

Levobupivacaine

AE: less CNS effects than Lidocaine , restlessness, convolutions → respiratory depression but less cardio toxicity than Lidocaine

11

Prilocaine

Widely used
AE: methemoglobinemia

used for epidural anesthesia for obstetric analgesia)

12

Articaine

Used in dentistry