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Flashcards in Biochemistry Deck (21)
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1
Q

Serum vs Plasma

A

both are fluid part of blood after cells have been removed
plasma contains all clotting factors including fibrinogen
serum is fluid part after clot formation

2
Q

collecting serum

A

collect blood in tubes without anticoagulant
serum tube have red or brown tops
serum separator tubes with layer of gel which separates serum from cells

3
Q

separation of serum

A
allow blood to clot and remove supernatant 
centrifuge
serum separator tubes (gel)
separate immediately if possible
store at 4oC
4
Q

total protein

A

measured on serum or plasma
made up of albumin and globulins
measure by refractometer or colorimetric method
falsely increased by icterus, severe haemolysis + lipemia

5
Q

increased protein?

A

dehydration
inflammation
neoplasia

6
Q

decreased protein?

A

loss
decreased synthesis
dilution

7
Q

albumin

A

dye binding method of measuring albumin
increased albumin - dehydration
decreased albumin - increased loss (renal, haemorrhage, GI), decreased synthesis (liver), third spacing (effusions)

8
Q

globulins

A

calculated
different types that can be separated by electophoresis
selective increase - infl, neoplasia

9
Q

evaluating the liver

A

enzymes
metabolites
function tests

10
Q

pancreas

A

amylase and lipase
from pancreas and other sources - not specific
increases seen in dogs with pancreatitis
renal insufficiency also causes increases

11
Q

urinary system evaluation

A

look at both serum/plasma chemistry + urine
urea + creatinine both indicators of glomerular filtration
urea made in liver via urea cycle and excreted by kidney
cratinine derived from creatine in muscle

12
Q

azotemia

A

increase nitrogenous waste in circulation

13
Q

azotemia - causes

A

pre-renal - dehydration
renal - renal disease
post-renal - obstruction
check urine specific gravity (USG) - measure of kidneys ability to concentrate urine
compare with serum/plasma urea + creatinine

14
Q

urine specific gravity (USG)

A

1030 dog
1035 cat
1025 horse or ruminant
if USG less then there’s decreased concentrating ability + renal failure is present

15
Q

urea

A

in ruminants is not reliable indicator of renal disease - use creatinine only
urea levels influenced by protein intake + may be increased by high protein meal or GI bleeding

16
Q

sodium

A

main ion in extracellular fluid
regulated by kidney
increased sodium may be due to increased intake, water loss or decreased water intake
decreased sodium may be increased loss or increased water intake

17
Q

potassium

A

main ion in intracellular space
acid-base change will effect levels
regulated by intake + renal
increase - renal failure, hypoadrenocorticism + leakage from cells
decrease - loss (vomit/diarrhoea) + intake

18
Q

chloride

A

usually changes with sodium
interference with bromide + iodine salts
changes with acid-base status or vomiting/abomasal displacement

19
Q

calcium

A
free calcium - active
bound calcium - bound to albumin
affected by albumin levels
if increased - check free Ca levels seperately
regulated by PTH and calcitonin
20
Q

phosphorus

A

regulated by PTH and calcitonin
increase often associated with renal disease
increase often seen in young growing animals with increased calcium + ALP

21
Q

Urinalysis

A

gross appearance
chemical analysis - specific gravity + urine strip
sediment - cellular elements, crystals, casts others