15.2.1 Schizophrenia 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 15.2.1 Schizophrenia 2 Deck (25):
1

Schizophrenia is 10 to 100 times more common in the ____ ____ and ____ than in most third world countries.

United States and Europe

2

Lifetime prevalence of schizophrenia is more common for ___ than ____ by ratio of about 7:5.

men than women

3

Researchers have documented several unexplained ____ about schizophrenia.

oddities

4

Oddity one. Schizophrenia is significantly less common than average among people with type one (juvenile onset) ____, although it is more common than average in people with type two (adult onset) ____.

diabetes

5

Oddity two. People with schizophrenia have an increased risk of colon ____ but below average probability of respiratory ____ or brain ____.

cancer

6

Oddity three. People with schizophrenia seldom develop ____ ____ or allergies.

rheumatoid arthritis

7

Oddity four. Women who have a schizophrenic breakdown during ____ usually give birth to daughters. However, those who have a breakdown shortly after giving birth usually give birth to sons.

pregnancy

8

Oddity five. Many people with schizophrenia have a characteristic ____ ____, attributed to the chemical trans-3-methyl-2-hexenioc acid, and decreased ability to smell that chemical themselves.

body odour

9

Oddity 6. Most people with schizophrenia and many of their unaffected relatives have deficits in ____ ____ ____ – the ability to keep their eyes moving on a target.

pursuit eye movements

10

At one time, many researchers believed that schizophrenia might be a genetic disease, such as Huntington's disease. However, accumulating evidence indicates that although schizophrenia has a genetic basis, it does not depend on any ____ ____.

single gene

11

The more closely you are ____ ____ to someone with schizophrenia, the greater your own probability of schizophrenia.

biologically related

12

Monozygotic twins have a much higher ____ (agreement) for schizophrenia than do dizygotic twins.

concordance

13

The high concordance for monozygotic twins has long been taken as strong evidence for a ____ ____. However, note two limitations.

genetic influence

14

Limitation one. Monozygotic twins have only about ____ concordance, not 100%.

50%

15

Limitation to. There is greater similarity between dizygotic twins than between siblings. Dizygotic twins have the same genetic resemblance as siblings but greater ____ ____, including prenatal environment.

environmental similarity

16

When an adopted child develops schizophrenia, the disorder is more common in the person's ____ ____ than adopting relatives.

biological relatives

17

This adoption result suggests a genetic basis, but it is also consistent with a ____ influence.

prenatal

18

Many women with schizophrenia smoke, drink, use other drugs, and eat a less than desirable diet ____ ____.

during pregnancy

19

A disproportionate number of women with schizophrenia have ____ during pregnancy and delivery.

complications

20

If some of the children of mothers with schizophrenia develop schizophrenia, we cannot be sure that the influence is ____, because of this prenatal environmental factors.

genetic

21

Studies on adopted children also support a role for post birth _____ influences.

environmental

22

The strongest evidence for a genetic influence would be to locate a gene that is ____ linked with schizophrenia. There are many, and many combinations.

consistently

23

The hypothesis is that a new ____ or ____ of any of a large number of genes disrupts brain development and increases the probability of schizophrenia.

mutation or deletion

24

According to the neurodevelopmental hypothesis now popular among researchers. Schizophrenia begins with abnormalities in the ____ or ____ development of the nervous system, based on either genetics or other influences.

prenatal or neonatal

25

These early problems lead the developing brain vulnerable to other disturbances later in life, including but not limited to highly ____ ____.

stressful experiences

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