15CHAPTER 13: SPINAL CORD, SPINAL NERVES, REFLEXES Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology > 15CHAPTER 13: SPINAL CORD, SPINAL NERVES, REFLEXES > Flashcards

Flashcards in 15CHAPTER 13: SPINAL CORD, SPINAL NERVES, REFLEXES Deck (60)
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1

What are the function of the spinal cord?

Conduction – sensory info in, motor info out.
Locomotion – Contain central pattern generators = Control extensors and involved in walking
Reflexes – Involuntary stereotyped responses to stimuli

2

What are the regions of the spinal cord?

Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, and Sacral

3

Where is there lots of nerves to supple upper and lower limbs?

Cervical and lumbar enlargements

4

What is the medullary cone?

Tapered tip of cord

5

What is the cauda equine?

Collection of lumbar and sacral spinal nerves (L2 to S5)

6

What are menings?

Fibrous layers enclosing spinal cord

7

What are the 3 layers of meninges?

Dura mater, Arachnoid mater, pia mater

8

What is dura mater?

Tough collagenous sleeve around SC (dural sheath)

9

Where are epidural spaces found and what are they filled with?

Between dural sheath and vertebral bones – filled with fat and blood vessels

10

What is considered the ‘site of epidural anesthesia utilized during childbirth’?

Epidural space

11

What is arachnoid mater?

Adheres to dura mater
Subarachnoid space = loose mesh of fibers filled with CSF
located between dura mater and pia mater

12

What is pia mater?

Thin membrane covering spinal cord
Extends beyond medullary cone à terminal filum (coccygeal ligament) and anchors cord to Co1

13

What ligament anchor the cord laterally to the dura mater?

Denticulate ligaments

14

Sensory info always goes _____, while motor info always goes.

Up, down

15

What does decussation mean?

when a tract crosses to the other side

16

What does contralateral mean?

Origin and destination are on opposite sides

17

What does ipsilateral mean?

Origin and destination are on same side

18

In general, sensory input to the brain passes through what 3 neurons?

• 1st order neuron from receptor to spinal cord or medulla
• 2nd order neuron from spinal cord and medulla to thalamus
• 3rd order neuron from thalamus to cerebral cortex

19

State the origin, destination and the information provided by the cuneate fasciculus tract.

O= Chest and upper limb (T6 and up) D= medulla, Info= touch and proprioception

20

State the origin, destination and the information provided by the gracile fasciculus tract.

O= below chest (below T6), D= medulla, Info= touch and proprioception.

21

State the origin, destination and the information provided by the spinothalamic tract.

O= spinal cord, D= thalamus, Info= pain and temp, tickle, itch

22

State the origin, destination and the information provided by the spinocerebellar tract.

O=Spinal cord, D= Cerebellum, Info= proprioception from limbs and trunk

23

Motor pathways involve what 2 neurons?

-Upper motor neuron from brain à spinal cord
-Lower motor neuron from spinal cord à muscle or target organ

24

State the origin, destination and the information provided by the corticospinal tract?

O= motor cortex, D= ventral grey matter of spinal cord, Info= fine motor control of limbs

25

State the origin, destination and the information provided by the tectospinal tract?

O= midbrain (tectum), D= ventral grey matter of spinal cord, Info= reflexive movement of head and neck to sound and sight “hey you”

26

State the origin, destination and the information provided by the reticulospinal tract?

O= brainstem (reticular formation), D= ventral grey matter of spinal cord, Info= Balance and posture,
Analgesic (reduce transmission of pain signals back to brain)

27

State the origin, destination and the information provided by the vestibulospinal tract?

O= Pons (vestibular nuclei), D= spinal cord, Info= balance and posture

28

What is a nerve?

Numerous axons (nerve fibers) bound by CT.

29

What are fascicles?

Bundles of unmyelinated and myelinated nerve fibers (axons)

30

What does endoneurium surround?

Axons and schwann cells (covers the neurilemma)