17 Restructuring the Postwar World, 1945-Present Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 17 Restructuring the Postwar World, 1945-Present Deck (46):
1

United Nations

world organization formed to prevent war

2

Iron Curtain

division between Eastern and Western Europe during the Cold War; coined by Winston Churchill

3

containment

policy aimed at preventing the spread of communism

4

Truman Doctrine

policy of giving aid to countries threatened by communism

5

Marshall Plan

plan to give aid to European countries to help them recover from WWII

6

Berlin Airlift

flying of food and supplies into West Berlin by Britain and the US to break a Soviet blockade

7

Cold War

state of tension and mistrust between the US and the Soviet Union after WWII

8

NATO

military alliance including the US, Canada, and several countries in Western Europe

9

Warsaw Pact

military alliance between the Soviet Union and the countries of Eastern Europe

10

brinkmanship

willingness on the part of the superpowers to go the brink, or edge, of war

11

Mao Zedong

communist leader who defeated the Nationalists and led the People's Republic of China

12

Jiang Jieshi

Nationalist leader who set up a new government in Taiwan

13

Taiwan

also known as the Republic of China (ROC)

14

commune

large farm setup in China in which many families work the land and live together

15

Cultural Revolution

uprising in China between 1966 and 1976 that aimed to establish a society of peasants and workers in which all were equal

16

Red Guards

young Chinese students who carried out the Cultural Revolution

17

38th Parallel

line that separated North Korea and South Korea

18

Douglas MacArthur

leader of the UN forces during the Korean War

19

Seoul

capital of South Korea

20

Yalu River

natural border between China and North Korea

21

Ho Chi Minh

Vietnamese nationalist who drove the French out of Vietnam and who led North Vietnam

22

domino theory

idea that the fall of one country to communism would lead other countries to become communist

23

Ngo Dinh Diem

leader of the anticommunist government of South Vietnam

24

Vietcong

communist rebels in South Vietnam who were supported by North Vietnam

25

vietnamization

Nixon's plan for gradually withdrawing US troops from Vietnam and replacing them with South Vietnamese troops

26

Khmer Rouge

Communist rebels who set up a brutal government in Cambodia

27

KGB

Russian secret police

28

Third World

developing nations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America

29

nonaligned nations

countries that did not take sides with either the US or the Soviet Union

30

Fidel Castro

communist leader of Cuba

31

Nikita Khrushchev

leader of the Soviet Union after Stalin

32

John F. Kennedy

president of the US from 1961 to 1963

33

Anastazio Somoza

Nicaraguan dictator

34

Daniel Ortega

leader of communist rebels in Nicaragua

35

Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini

Muslim leader who overthrew the Shah of Iran

36

Imre Nagy

Hungarian leader

37

Alexander Dubček

Czechoslovakian leader

38

Lyndon Johnson

president of the US from 1963 to 1969

39

Richard M. Nixon

president of the US from 1969 to 1974

40

SALT

talks to limit nuclear arms in the US and the Soviet Union

41

Ronald Reagan

president of the US from 1981 to 1989

42

Mutually Assured Destruction

the doctrine that a universally catastrophic nuclear war was not worth starting by either side

43

glasnost

"openness" instead of government secrecy

44

perestroika

"restructuring" of the Soviet political and economic system

45

Joseph McCarthy

persecuted alleged Communists in the US

46

Red Scare

hysteria surrounding the presence of Communists in the US