2. Structure and Metabolism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2. Structure and Metabolism Deck (61):
1

Process of reproduction by prokaryotes

Binary fission

2

Approx length of time of binary fission

Approx. 20 mins

3

Bacteria acquire nutrients from the environment through which type of transport?

Active transport

4

Requirements for all bacteria

- carbon source
- nitrogen source
- energy source (ATP)
- trace elements

5

Purpose of carbon source for bacteria

For cellular constituents

6

Purpose of nitrogen source for bacteria

For proteins

7

Purpose of energy source for bacteria

To perform cellular tasks

8

Trace elements required for all bacteria

Iron
Calcium
Zinc
Copper
Manganese
Cobalt
Phosphorus
Sulphur
Magnesium
Potassium

9

Bacteria that lives and grows in air; cannot grow anaerobically

Obligate aerobe

10

Bacteria that grows aerobically and anaerobically

Facultative anaerobe

11

Bacteria that grows better anaerobically, but can tolerate low levels of O2

Aerotolerant anaerobe

12

Bacteria that only grows anaerobically, poisoned by O2

Obligate anaerobe

13

Bacteria that grows in environments where there is increased CO2 or other enrichments

Microaerophilic

14

Purpose of bacterial metabolism

Production of ATP

15

Process where glucose is converted into pyruvate

Fermentation

16

Other names for Fermentation

Embden-Meyerhoff pathway
Glycolysis

17

Metabolism in the absence of O2 (anaerobic)

Fermentation

18

Net gain in fermentation

2 ATP
NADH2

19

End products of Fermentation

Pyruvate
NADH
FADH

20

Metabolism under the presence of O2

Aerobic respiration

21

2 pathways in aerobic respiration

Krebs cycle (Tricarboxylic acid cycle)
Electron transport chain

22

Fermentation product that enters the Krebs cycle/TCA

Pyruvate

23

Fermentation product(s) that enter the electron transport chain

NADH (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)
FADH (Flavin adenine dinucleotide)

24

Net gain in Aerobic respiration

38 ATP (incl. ATP from fermentation)

25

End-products in aerobic respiration

CO2
H2O

26

Application of fermentation and respiration in the lab

Acid detection
Gas detection
Alcohol detection

27

General diameter and length of bacteria

0.2 - 2 um diameter
1 - 6 um length

28

Single, long, supercoiled, circular DNA molecule attached to the cell membrane; contains genetic info to code for products

Chromosome

29

Small, circular double-stranded DNA; may code for antibiotic resistance; can be exchanged between a donor and recipient during conjugation

Plasmids

30

Sites of protein synthesis

Ribosomes

31

A 70s prokaryotic ribosome comprises

A 30s subunit and a 50s subunit

32

Bacterial cell membrane consists of

Proteins
Phospholipids

33

Defines the shape of bacterial cells

Bacterial cell walls

34

Main constituent of bacterial cell walls; sugar molecules linked by small peptide chains

Peptidoglycan

35

True/False. Peptidoglycan can only be found in bacteria

True

36

Differentiate the cell walls of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria

Gram-positive bacteria have thick layer of peptidoglycan

Gram-negative bacteria have much thinner peptidoglycan layer but they have lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inside the cell wall

37

Part of lipopolysaccharide that protrudes from cell surface

O antigen

38

A slimy, gelatinous material produced near the cell membrane and secreted outside of the cell wall

Glycocalyx

39

2 types of glycocalyx

Slime layer
Capsule

40

Bacteria that have a slime layer glycocalyx

Pseudomonas
Staphylococcous

41

Glycocalyx that is not highly organized nor firmly attached to the cell wall

Slime layer

42

Glycocalyx that is highly organized and is firmly attached to the cell wall

Capsule

43

Bacterial capsule is usually made up of what substance?

Polysaccharides which may combine with lipids and proteins

44

Function of capsule

Protects bacteria from engulfment by WBCs

45

Function of glycocalyx

Protects bacteria from antibiotics

46

Enables bacteria to move in liquid environment

Flagella

47

The flagella consists of

Three or more protein appendages twisted together

48

AKA pili

Fimbriae

49

True/false. Pili is associated with motility

False

50

Short, hairlike structures usually on external surface of gram-negative bacteria

Pili

51

2 types of pili

Adherence pili
Sex pili

52

Function of adherence pili

Anchors the bacteria to surfaces

53

Funtion of sex pili

Transfers genetic material

54

The cell possessing a sex pilus is called

Donor cell

55

What is transferred through the sex pilus?

Genetic material (usually a plasmid)

56

Function of spores

Means of survival when moisture or nutrients are low

57

Process of spore formation

Sporulation

58

2 bacterial genera that are spore-formers

Bacillus
Clostridium

59

Bacteria that cause disease are termed

Pathogenic

60

Examples of virulence factors

Exotoxins
Endotoxins
Capsules
Pili
Other extracellular proteins

61

Single-cell organisms lacking membrane-bound nuclei

Prokaryotes