8. Family Mycobacteriaceae (I) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 8. Family Mycobacteriaceae (I) Deck (43):
1

Motility of the family Mycobacteriaceae

Nonmotile

2

What is used to stain Mycobacteria?

Ziel-Neelsen
Auromine O stain

3

Steps in Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining

Carbol fuchsin (1° stain)
HCl (decolorizer)
Methylene blue (counterstain)

4

Found in the cell wall of Mycobacteria that enables it to retain the carbol fuchsin stain

Mycolic acids

5

Enumerate the bacteria that have mycolic acids in their cell wall in decreasing order of chain length

Mycobacteria
Nocardia
Corynebacteria

6

True/False. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has an animal reservoir

False. M. tuberculosis is an exclusive human pathogen

7

An animal pathogen that is closely related to M. tuberculosis that causes a disease in people that is indistinguishable from TB

M. bovis

8

How is M. bovis acquired?

Ingestion of infected meat or milk

9

MOT for M. tuberculosis

Aerosol droplets from coughing

10

Common presentation of TB

Chronic pulmonary disease

11

Nodular structure formed by macrophages, monocytes and neutrophils which triggers an immunologic response

Tubercle/granuloma

12

Immunologic response to M. tuberculosis infection

Cellular immunity
Delayed-type hypersensitivity

13

What can be seen in radiographs of disseminated or miliary TB?

"Millet seed"-like lesions

14

Dissemination of M. tuberculosis organism to the liver, spleen, kidney, bone, brain, meninges, and other parts of the lung with further granuloma formation

Disseminated/miliary TB

15

Skin test for the delayed-type hypersentivity for TB

PPD test

16

Antigen reagent in the PPD test

Purified Protein Derivative

17

Vaccine for TB prophylaxis

Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccine

18

Drugs taken after a positive tuberculin test to prevent disease

Isoniazid (INH): 6-9 months
Rifampin: 4-9 months

19

M. tuberculosis drug-resistance is due to

Mutation

20

How are nontuberculous Mycobacteria acquired?

Environmentally acquired

21

MOTT that is commonly associated with HIV-related systemic bacterial infection; pulmonary pathogen much like TB

M. avium complex (MAC)

22

MOTT agent of pulmonary disease in compromised hosts (HIV-infected individuals)

M. kansasii

23

MOTT agent that causes cutaneous disease from contact with contaminated water

M. marinum

24

MOTT agent that causes cervical adenitis in children (contaminated raw milk, soil, daily products)

M. scrofulaceum

25

MOTT that causes skin and soft tissue diseases in various hosts

M. fortuitum
M. chelonae
M. abscessus

26

MOTT agent that causes leprosy

M. leprae

27

Nontuberculous Mycobacteria commonly found in tap water

M. gordonae

28

Is M. gordonae pathogenic or nonpathogenic?

Nonpathogenic

29

Class of biosafety hood in dealing with AFB

Class 2

30

Lab diagnosis of TB

- AFB visible by Ziehl-Neelsen or fluorochrome smears
- recovery by culture (gold standard)

31

Incubation time for Mycobacteria

Up to 8 weeks

32

Used for rapid diagnosis of TB

Nucleic acid assays (NAA)

33

2 species under M. avium complex (MAC)

M. avium
Mycoplasma intracellulare

34

Most commonly isolated AFB among MOTT

M. avium complex

35

Colony morphology of M. avium complex

Smooth
Cream-colored colonies

36

MOTT that is rapid growing; grows in 7 days or less on solid media

M. fortuitum-chelonae complex

37

Staining characteristics of M. fortuitum-chelonae complex

Gram-positive cells with diphtheroid-like morphology

38

Other name for leprosy

Hansen's disease

39

Phases of M. leprae infection

Silent phase
Intermediate phase

40

Phase of M. leprae infection; multiplication of bacilli

Silent phase

41

Phase of M. leprae infection; impairment of sensory and peripheral nerves

Intermediate phase

42

Where can M. leprae be grown?

- Footpads of mice
- Nine-branded armadillos

It cannot be grown on artificial media.

43

Oxygen requirements of the family Mycobacteriaceae

Obligate aerobes